# OPHI Online Training Portal

This portal provides a brief introduction to multidimensional poverty measurement using the Alkire-Foster method. Drawing on Amartya Sen’s capability approach and empirical examples of National and Global Multidimensional Poverty Indices (MPIs), the modules examine the conceptual and empirical motivation for measuring multidimensional poverty, and present a full suite of measurement tools.

Alkire, S., Foster, J. E., Seth, S., Santos, M. E., Roche, J. M., & Ballón, P. (2015). Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and Analysis, Oxford: Oxford University Press

UNDP & OPHI. (2019). How to Build a National Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI): Using the MPI to inform the SDGs. UNDP, New York

• ## Unidimensional Poverty Measures

Guiding Questions:

1. What are the two main steps of unidimensional poverty measurement?
2. What is the FGT family of indices?
3. What are the properties that the FGT measures satisfy?
• ## Multidimensional Poverty Measurement: Motivations & Properties

Guiding Questions:

1. What is a multidimensional poverty measure?
2. What are the motivations for focusing on multidimensional poverty measurement and analysis?
3. What are the arguments for a multidimensional poverty measure?
4. What does empirical evidence tell us about multidimensional poverty measures?
• ## Multidimensional Poverty Methods & Counting Approaches

Guiding Questions:

1. What are the range of methods to assess and evaluate multidimensional poverty and the scope as well as the limitations of each?
2. How can you explain a counting approach?
3. What are the benefits of using counting approaches to measure poverty?
• ## Introduction to the Capability Approach

• Alkire, S., Foster, J. E., Seth, S., Santos, M. E., Roche, J. M., & Ballon, P. (2015). Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and Analysis, Oxford: Oxford University Press (Chapter 6).

Guiding Questions:

1. What is the capability approach (CA)?
2. What does the CA propose and claim?
3. What are the implications? How does the CA change our view?
4. What are the practical implication for normative choices of the capability?
5. How might multidimensional poverty measure reflect capability poverty?
• ## The Alkire-Foster Method

Guiding questions:

1. How does the Alkire-Foster method work?
2. What makes the Alkire-Foster method particularly useful?
• ## Normative Choices in Measurement Design

Guiding Questions:

1. What can and should be considered when choosing the unit of analysis, dimensions, indicators, poverty lines, and weights?
2. How can normative choices be best made?
• ## Data & Indicators

Guiding Questions:

1. What are the various sources of multidimensional data?
2. What are the strength and limitations of each of these data sources?
3. What are the issues to be considered when selecting and constructing the indicators to include in a multidimensional poverty measure?
4. What are the types of missing values?
5. What are the options to deal with missing values when constructing a multidimensional poverty measure?
• ## Global MPI

• Alkire, S. & Santos, M. E. (2014). Measuring acute poverty in the developing world: Robustness and scope of the multidimensional poverty index. World Development, 59. Also available as OPHI Working Paper 59, University of Oxford.
• Alkire, S., Kanagaratnam, U., Nogales, R. & Suppa, N. (2022). Revising the global Multidimensional Poverty Index: Empirical insight and robustness. The Review of Income & Wealth, 68(S2),1-38.
• Alkire, S., Foster, J. E., Seth, S., Santos, M. E., Roche, J. M., & Ballon, P. (2015). Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and Analysis, Oxford University Press (Chapter 5.6)

Additional resources: Visit the global MPI area of the website. Read global MPI reports, methodological notes, data tables and country briefings including the latest release.

Guiding Questions:

1. What is the global MPI?
2. What are the different components and the structure of the global MPI?
3. What are the motivations for the revision of the global MPI in 2018?
4. What are the indicator options considered for the revision?
5. Who is MPI poor?
6. How can we identify global poverty levels?
7. What information do the global MPI results provide?
• ## National MPI

Additional resources: Read official national MPI reports and check related country pages on the MPPN website.

Guiding Questions:

1. What can and should be considered when choosing the unit of analysis, dimensions, indicators, poverty lines, and weights?
2. What are some examples of national MPIs and what considerations and normative decisions were taken?
• ## Measures of Association & Redundancy

• Alkire, S., Foster, J. E., Seth, S., Santos, M. E., Roche, J. M., & Ballon, P. (2015). Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and Analysis, Oxford University Press (Chapter 7.3).

Guiding Questions:

1. Why it is important to scrutinize the associations between different indicators?
2. What are the limitations of the correlation analysis?
3. What is the analysis and interpretation of redundancy?
• ## Multidimensional Poverty Measurement: Motivations & Properties

Guiding Questions:

1. What is a multidimensional poverty measure?
2. What are the motivations for focusing on multidimensional poverty measurement and analysis?
3. What are the arguments for a multidimensional poverty measure?
4. What does empirical evidence tell us about multidimensional poverty measures?
• ## Robustness Analysis

Guiding Questions:

1. How conclusive poverty comparisons are?
2. Why it is crucial to compute and report inferential errors alongside point estimates?
3. How to make effective use of standard errors?

• ## Interpreting the MPI

Additional resources: Read national and global MPI reports alongside the textbook and Handbook.

• ## Analysing & Interpreting Changes in Multidimensional Poverty

Additional resources: Read global MPI country briefings for over 80 countries with trends data.