The capability approach of Amartya Sen evaluates well-being in terms of an individual’s achievements and abilities to function. The traditional view of capabilities is that they are discernable as part of an individual’s own set of characteristics, or as part of a package of socially provided services. We argue that individuals also have access to a broad array of capabilities through their family, friends and other persons with whom they have relationships. We introduce the concept of ‘external capabilities’, which are defined as those abilities to function that are conferred by direct connection or relationship with another person. Several examples are provided, and we distinguish between our new concept and other existing notions of capabilities originating in groups. The perspective of external capabilities can be especially valuable in formulating development policies or understanding how existing policies work. As an illustration of this, we show how information and communications technologies (ICT) can enhance development by augmenting external capabilities.
Citation: Foster, J. and Handy, C. (2008). ‘External capabilities’, OPHI Working Paper 8, University of Oxford.