Listen to The Economist interview OPHI Director, Sabina Alkire, on the new Multidimensional Poverty Index, launched by OPHI and the UNDP Human Development Report Office in July 2010.
‘Leaving no one behind’ (LNOB) constitutes one of the core principles underpinning the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy logic approach to identify countries left behind in each dimension of human development and to estimate the extent to which certain countries are left behind in terms of overall human development. Following the current analytical framework for measuring the Human Development Index (HDI), we illustrate our proposal by measuring the degree to which a country was left behind in the years 2000 and 2018. In general, we find that the countries left furthest behind at the beginning of the century were those that most reduced gaps with respect to better performing countries. Nevertheless, we cannot clearly speak of convergence in HDI as there are notable exceptions, such as the Central African Republic, Liberia, Yemen, Haiti, and Venezuela, which despite the improvement in their HDI between 2000 and 2018, worryingly increased their gaps in human development relative to the rest of the world. The illustration highlights the significant advantages of measuring cross-county human development using our fuzzy-based LNOB approach to provide new complementary measures consistent with the United Nations’ moral imperative of leaving no country behind.
Citation: García-Pardo, F., Pérez-Moreno, S. and Bárcena-Martín, E. (2021). ‘Leaving no country behind in human development: A fuzzy approach’, OPHI Working Paper 136, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.
Herizo is using remote sensing and GIS techniques to look at key environmental variables that can be associated with the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). He is now working with Sabina Alkire and Dyah Pritadrajati to write a paper on changes in MPI and environmental deprivations in Madagascar.
Herizo completed his DPhil in 2017 at the Oxford Long Term Ecology Lab (OxLEL) Department of Zoology, University of Oxford. To our knowledge, he is the first Malagasy person to be awarded a doctorate degree at the University of Oxford.
He is a conservation practitioner with 18 years’ experience in community-based conservation approach including participatory ecological monitoring in Madagascar.
He won the 2014 Tusk Award for Conservation in Africa, presented by HRH Prince William, and the 2006 Ramsar Crane Bank Award.
DPhil in Conservation Biology, University of Oxford
Postgraduate Diploma in International Wildlife Conservation Practice, University of Oxford DEA (MSc) in Ecology and Development, University of Antananarivo
Water and Forest Engineer degree, Department of Forestry, University of Antananarivo
Biodiversity conservation; conservation impact evaluation; remote sensing, and GIS.
Hudson M., Andrianandrasana H., Lewis R., Gerrie R. and Concannon L. (2018). Unprecedented rates of deforestation in Menabe Antimena: Can we halt this catastrophic damage? Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust. www.durrell.org
Waeber, P.O., Ratsimbazafy J.H., Andrianandrasana H., Ralainasolo, F.B., & Nievergelt, C.M. (2018). ‘Hapalemur alaotrensis, a conservation case study from the swamps of Alaotra, Madagascar’, Barnett A.A., Matsuda, I., and Nowak, K. (eds). (2019). Primates in Flooded Habitats; Ecology and Conservation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
GOFC-GOLD (2017). A Sourcebook of Methods and Procedures for Monitoring Essential Biodiversity Variables in Tropical Forests with Remote Sensing. Report version UNCBD COP-13, GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. ISSN: 2542-6729.
Danielsen, F., Jensen, P.M., Burgess, N., Holt, S., Andrianandrasana, H., Sam, R., Brashares, J., Burton, A.C., Rueda, R., Corpuz, N., Massao, J., Young, R., Lewis, R., Sørensen, M., Poulsen, M.K., Alviola, F., Funder, M., Skielboe, T., Fjeldså, J., Hübertz, H., Enghoff, M., Topp-Jørgensen, Elmer J., Ngaga, Y.M., Jensen, A., Indiana, C. (2014). ‘Who needs a degree? A comparison of trends in tropical resources measured by villagers and scientists’, BioScience 64, 3, pp. 236–251.
Ratsimbazafy J.H., Ralainasolo F.B., Rendings A., Contreras J.M., Andrianandrasana H., Mandimbihasina A.R., Nievergelt C.M., Lewis R., & Waeber P.O. (2013). ‘Gone in a puff of smoke? Hapalemur alaotrensis at a great risk of extinction’, Lemur News 17.
Danielsen F., Skutsch M., Burgess N.D., Jensen P.M., Andrianandrasana H., Karky B., Lewis R., Lovett J.C., Massao J., Ngaga Y., Phartiyal P., Poulsen M.K., Singh S.P., Solis S., Sørensen M., Tewari A., Young R. and Zahabu E. (2010). ‘At the heart of REDD+: a role for local people in monitoring forests?’ Conservation Letters 4–2, 158–167. doi 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00159.x
Zinner, D., Wygoda, C., Razafimanantsoa, L., Rasoloarison, R., Andrianandrasana, H., Ganzhorn, J.U. & Toler, F. (2014). ‘Analysis of deforestation patterns in the central Menabe, Madagascar, between 1973 and 2010’. Regional Environmental Change 14, pp. 157–166.
Copsey, A.J., Jones, J.P.G., Andrianandrasana. H., Rajaonarison LH & Fa JE (2009). ‘Burning to fish: local explanations for wetland burning in Lac Alaotra, Madagascar’, Oryx 43, pp. 403–406. doi:10.1017/S0030605308000525
Andrianandrasana, H., Randriamahefasoa, J., Durbin, J., Lewis, R.E., & Ratsimbazafy, J.H. (2005). ‘Participatory ecological monitoring of the Alaotra wetlands in Madagascar’, Biodiversity and Conservation 14, pp. 2757–2774. doi 10.1007/s10531-005-8413-y
Danielsen, F., Burgess, N.D., Balmford, A., Fjeldså, J., Andrianandrasana, H., Becker, C.D., Bennun, L., Brashares, J.S., Jones, J.P.G., Stuart-Hill, G., Topp-Jorgensen, E., Townsend, W.R., Uychiaoco, A.J., Whitten, T. and Yonten, D. (2006) ‘Monitoring matters: evaluating locally-based biodiversity monitoring in developing countries’, Oryx 40, pp. 12–17.
Andrianandrasana, H. (2001). ‘Ecological study of the rarest tortoise Geochelone yniphora (Vaillant, 1885) in Baly Bay Soalala Madagascar’, Dodo 36, p. 92.
OPHI Briefing 57 (PDF)
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has altered people’s lives in a multifaceted way. It is now clear that the progress in poverty reduction is also at stake. This briefing analyses the most recent and up-to-date trends in multidimensional poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) prior to the pandemic, which is essential for understanding both the progress made in the past and for use as a benchmark for the future.
The briefing first presents the levels of multidimensional poverty in LAC according to the global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2020.
Erratum: The source for Table A1 in the Appendix is erroneously stated as ‘Alkire, Nogales, Quinn, and Suppa (2020)’ in the briefing. The correct source information for this table should read ‘Alkire, Kanagaratnam and Suppa (2020).
Authors: Hector Moreno and Mónica Pinilla-Roncancio
Citation: Moreno, H. and Pinilla-Roncancio, M. (2021). ‘Multidimensional Poverty and COVID-19 in Latin America and the Caribbean: Recent Trends and the Route Ahead’, OPHI Briefing 57, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.
According to the global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), an internationally comparable measure, poverty in developing countries has fallen substantially over the last 15 years. The COVID-19 pandemic and associated economic contraction are negatively impacting multiple dimensions of poverty and jeopardising this progress. This paper uses quantitative assessments of increases in food insecurity and out of school children made by UN agencies to inform microsimulations of potential impacts of the pandemic under six alternative scenarios. These simulations use the nationally representative datasets underlying the 2020 update of the global MPI. Because these datasets were collected between one and 12 years pre-pandemic, we develop models to translate the simulated impacts to 2020 while accounting for underlying poverty reduction trends and country-specific factors. Aggregating results across 70 countries that account for 89% of the global poor according to the 2020 global MPI, we find that the potential setback to multidimensional poverty reduction is between 3.6 and 9.9 years under the alternative scenarios.
An earlier version of this work was circulated as part of “On track or not? Projecting the global Multidimensional Poverty Index”, OPHI Research in Progress 58a.
Citation: Alkire, S., Nogales, R., Quinn, N. N. and Suppa, N. (2021). ‘Global multidimensional poverty and COVID-19: A decade of progress at risk?’, OPHI Research in Progress 61a, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.
Ryohei is a Consultant at OPHI and a postdoctoral researcher at the Centre for Demographic Studies in Barcelona. He is responsible for editing the manuscripts of the OPHI Working Paper series. His substantive research focus is fertility, particularly childlessness and intimacy.
PhD in Demography, Autonomous University of Barcelona and Centre for Demographic Studies
European Research Certificate in Demography, European Doctoral School of Demography (EDSD), Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research and La Sapienza University of Rome
MA in Economics, Meiji University
BA in Economics, Meiji University
Demography; Family demography; Formal demography; Fertility; Childlessness; Intimacy; Union formation.
Riffe, T., Acosta, E., …, Mogi, R., et al. (forthcoming). ‘A database of age-structured COVID-19 cases and deaths (COVerAGE-DB)’, International Journal of Epidemiology.
Lazzari, E., Mogi, R., and Canudas-Romo, V. (forthcoming). ‘Educational gradient and parity contribution to completed cohort fertility decline in low fertility settings’, Population Studies.
Mogi, R., Nisén, J., and Canudas-Romo, V. (2021). ‘Cross-sectional average length of life childless’, Demography, 8937427.
Mogi, R. and del Mundo, M. (2020). ‘Decomposing changes in first birth trends: Quantum, timing, or variance’, Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, vol. 18 (online-first).
Esteve, A., Boertien, D., Mogi, R., and Lozano, M. (2020). ‘Understanding fertility variations across below-replacement societies: A challenge for demography’, Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, vol. 18 (online-first).
Mogi, R. and Canudas-Romo, V. (2020). ‘Cross-sectional average length of life by parity: Illustration for the US cohorts in reproductive ages in 2015’, in (R. Schoen ed.), Analyzing Contemporary Fertility, pp. 293–306, Springer.
Uchikoshi, F. and Mogi, R. (2018). ‘Order matters: The effect of premarital pregnancy on second childbearing in Japan’, Demographic Research, vol. 39(48), pp.1305–1330. Mogi, R. and Canudas-Romo, V. (2018). ‘Expected years ever married’, Demographic Research, vol. 38(47), pp.1423–1456.
Alexandra works as a research and policy consultant for OPHI advising and producing policy briefs and supporting research projects. She has previously worked in international relations and development in Uganda and Strasbourg, for governmental, non-governmental and international institutions.
MPhil in International Relations, University of Oxford
BA in Political Science, University of Vienna
Conflict and peace; Capability Approach; Multidimensional poverty; Human development; Human rights; Citizenship.
Job title: Research Associate
Email: Please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Rizwan is a Research Associate at OPHI. He is also Assistant Professor of Development Studies at the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics where he is Head of the Department of Development Studies. He has more than 18 years of experience in population and development mainly focusing on poverty, ageing and health. He has worked in the United Nations Development Programme in the preparation of National Human Development Report for Pakistan on Youth.
PhD Demography, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
MSc Population Studies, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
MSc Statistics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Poverty; health; well-being; migration; and population and development.
Putu supports the outreach team at OPHI and is also currently helping with harmonising data for the global MPI. Putu is also a Statistics/Quantitative Methods tutor at Keble College.
Before OPHI, Putu worked as a Research Assistant at the Blavatnik School of Government, helping with constructing Stata do-files and analysing how technology can further good governance. She has worked as a Research Assistant to Professor Ari Kuncoro (University of Indonesia) and Professor Vernon Henderson (Brown University) on, among other research topics, disaster resilience in Indonesia.
DPhil Social Policy (Jardine-Oxford Scholar), Trinity College, University of Oxford
MPhil Development Studies (Jardine Scholar), Trinity College, University of Oxford
Bachelor of Economics, Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia
Poverty; multidimensional poverty measurement; inequality; social policy
Phillips, T., Kira, B., Tartakowsky, A., Dolan, J. and Natih, P. (2020). ‘Digital technology governance: developing countries’ priorities and concerns’, Digital Pathways at Oxford, no. 3.
Natih, P. G. L. (2020, August 13). ‘How Digital Technology Can Reduce Inequality’, The Jakarta Post
Natih, P. G. L. (2017, November 10). ‘Freedom from Poverty: Reflection on Heroes Day’, The Jakarta Post
Natih, P. G. L. (2015). ‘Technical Efficiency Levels of Rural Banks (BPRs) in West Java: A Stochastic Frontier Approach.’ Economics and Finance in Indonesia, 61(3), pp. 223–240.
Job title: Research Assistant
Email: Please contact email@example.com
Ingrid supports OPHI’s writing and production of policy briefs and reports on multidimensional poverty. She is also a Research Assistant at the Centre for Development and the Environment at the University of Oslo, and has previously worked for the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Sarajevo and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in New Delhi.
MPhil in Development Studies, University of Oxford
BA(Hons) Combined Honours in Social Sciences (Politics and International Relations, History and Economics), Durham University
Gender and women’s empowerment; women’s movements; feminist theory; poverty and human development; China-Africa and India-Africa relations
Job title: Researcher
Email: Please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Ayush works with OPHI creating data visualization outputs and dashboards related to Multidimensional Poverty Indices (MPI). He also works on creating a guide for coding MPI using R.
His previous work involves research on rights-based laws in India and working with elected representatives and state governments for the implementation and monitoring of welfare programmes in Maharashtra, India.
Ayush is a RStudio certified tidyverse instructor and enjoys teaching data analysis skills using R.
Postgraduate Diploma in Business Analytics, University of Mumbai
Postgraduate Diploma in Economics and Finance, University of Mumbai
Bachelor of Engineering, Gujarat Technological University
Development Economics; Multidimensional Poverty; Rights-Based Laws