This summer OPHI is carrying out qualitative work and cognitive interviews in the Philippines and Bolivia to validate and refine OPHI’s Missing Dimensions modules on Empowerment and Shame and Isolation. Marcos Medina has been commissioned to carry out qualitative work in the Philippines which will be done in close collaboration with the Community-Based Monitoring System (CBMS). Emily Hedin, recipient of an OPHI student grant, will conduct fieldwork for her MPhil thesis in El Altos, Bolivia. She will work in close collaboration with a local NGO and perform cognitive interviews with Aymara women to test OPHI’s Empowerment module. Both of these qualitative field studies will provide valuable data to validate and refine OPHI’s Missing Dimensions modules. Further qualitative work will also be carried out by Dr. Emma Samman in Tanzania and by Elise Klein in Mali.