Special Publications and Reports

This year’s report Unstacking global poverty: Data for high-impact action, produced in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report Office (UNDP HDRO), presents a compact update on the state of the world’s multidimensional poverty and calls for updated multidimensional poverty data to analyse post-pandemic impacts.

Citation: UNDP and OPHI (2023). Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2023: Unstacking global poverty – Data for high-impact action, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

Download the Global MPI 2023 report: Unstacking global poverty: Data for high-impact action


This report describes and analyses the extent, characteristics and evolution over time of multidimensional poverty in Arab countries. It reveals trends over the last decade and discusses the impacts on poverty of the multiple crises affecting the region, highlighting elements of progress and stagnation in poverty reduction efforts. It also sets out a way forward by laying out policy recommendations that remain valid and important after the first Arab Multidimensional Poverty Report (published in 2017).Linking development policies and programmes to the poverty indices used in this report could help to design better-targeted initiatives that reach the poor and address the severity and complexity of poverty.

This report is the result of three years of policy debate, research and regional consultations in cooperation between the League of Arab States, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI).

Citation: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), and others (2023). Second Arab Multidimensional Poverty Report. E/ESCWA/CL2.GPID/2022/4. Beirut.

Download Second Arab Multidimensional Poverty Report (2023)


GNH 2022 produced by the Centre for Bhutan & GNH Studies of the Royal Government of Bhutan provides detailed insights into the measurements, analysis, and policy implications of the Gross National Happiness Index for 2022 and covers changes in happiness across time. The book highlights different typologies of happy people to deepen the Government of Bhutan’s understanding of the nature and causes of wellbeing and happiness, and guides for policies to accelerate GNH growth going forward. 

Citation: Ura, K., Alkire, S., Wangdi, K., and Zangmo, T. (2023). GNH 2022, Centre for Bhutan and GNH Studies, Thimpu.

Download GNH 2022.

The Organization of American States (OAS), through its Inter-American Committee on Social Development (CIDES), presents the Compendium on experiences and lessons learned in the measurement of multidimensional poverty in the Americas an innovative tool that promotes the exchange of knowledge to close technical capacity gaps in the design and implementation of strategies to measure and address the multiple dimensions of poverty, appropriate to each local context.

Citation: CIDES (2022). Compendium of Experiences and Lessons Learned from the Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty in the Americas. Prepared by the Inter-American Committee on Social Development (CIDES) of the Organization of American States (OAS).

Download Compendium of Experiences and Lessons Learned from the Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty in the Americas (in English and in Spanish)

The four regional briefs co-published by OPHI and UNDP analyze multidimensional poverty trends and patterns in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia-Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean, using microdata from the 2021 global MPI database. As country data allows, the briefs also probe into disparities across subregions and age groups.  An additional brief explores the main ways in which countries have approached and reported on multidimensional poverty under Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs).

Download the OPHI and UNDP Regional MPI briefs

This year’s report, Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2022: Unpacking deprivation bundles to reduce multidimensional poverty, produced in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report Office (UNDP HDRO), examines interlinkages, or the simultaneous interlinked deprivations which multidimensionally poor people face around the world.  In addition to an update on the levels of multidimensional poverty across 111 countries and 6.1 billion people in developing regions, and trends for 81  of those countries, the report includes an update on India’s progress in poverty reduction over a fifteen-year period where 415 million people have left poverty (2015/16-2019/21), and issues a call for action to improve the quality and frequency of poverty data collection.  

Citation: UNDP and OPHI (2022). Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2022: Unpacking deprivation bundles to reduce multidimensional poverty. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

Download the Global MPI 2022 report Unpacking deprivation bundles to reduce multidimensional poverty

As part of the meta-analysis of the Emergency Social Safety Net programme in Turkey, this focus area report provides a review of the multidimensional measure used for the vulnerability analysis and its relationship with the ESSN programme’s targeting approach. It also analyses the potential adjustments needed to create a refugee-specific MPI for a possible use in other contexts.

Citation: OPHI and WFP (2022). Meta-Analysis of the impact and lessons learned for implementation of the Emergency Social Safety Net (ESSN) programme in Turkey (2016–20). Part 2: Focus Areas 2 and 3, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and World Food Programme (WFP).

Read more and download Meta-Analysis of the impact and lessons learned for implementation of the Emergency Social Safety Net (ESSN) programme in Turkey (2016–20). Part 2: Focus Areas 2 and 3

This report by the Maldives Bureau of Statistics analyses the vulnerability of the population of Maldives to poverty during the Covid-19 pandemic using a Multidimensional Vulnerability Index (MVI).

The MVI identifies the vulnerable population who face more than three vulnerabilities to COVID-19, shows where these vulnerable groups live, and which deprivations increase their vulnerability. The MVI is, thus, a policy tool to direct action towards the most needed groups during COVID-19.

Citation: Maldives Bureau of Statistics (2022). A Multidimensional Vulnerability Index for the Maldives in times of Covid-19. Maldives Bureau of Statistics. Ministry of National Planning, Housing and Infrastructure. Maldives.

Read more and download A Multidimensional Vulnerability Index for the Maldives in times of Covid-19

Evidence indicates that poverty worldwide is concentrated in rural areas, and that agriculture is central to the livelihoods and food security of these population groups. This extended and jointly authored report with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) articulates a conceptual framework for measuring multidimensional poverty in rural areas, and develops a rural Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). The rural MPI is applied to four countries – Malawi, Ethiopia, Niger and Nigeria – and presents exciting new insights relevant for policymakers, academics and practitioners working on rural poverty alleviation.

Citation: FAO and OPHI (2022). Measuring Rural Poverty with a Multidimensional Approach: The Rural Multidimensional Poverty Index. FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 19. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI).

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This study was undertaken with colleagues in the Gross National Happiness Commission (GNHC) to identify the communities who were the most vulnerable to the impacts of Covid-19 in Bhutan and to analyse how different population groups were being adversely affected.

Citation: Alkire, S. and Moreno, H. (2021). A Locally-disaggregated Multidimensional Vulnerability Index (MVI) for Bhutan,GNHC and UNICEF Bhutan Country Office.

Download A Locally-disaggregated Multidimensional Vulnerability Index (MVI) for Bhutan (2021)

The joint OPHI and UNDP 2021 global MPI report profiles global multidimensional poverty covering 5.9 billion people. The 2021 report uses disaggregation and intrahousehold analyses to highlight inequalities along the lines of ethnicity, caste and gender to show who is being left behind and which interlinked deprivations are hindering progress in poverty reduction.   

Citation: UNDP and OPHI (2021). Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2021 – Unmasking disparities by ethnicity, caste and gender. United Nations Development Programme and Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative.

Download Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2021 in English, French and Spanish.

Download the ethnicity tables produced for the global MPI 2021 report from this page.

To prevent or mitigate the health equity impacts of health emergencies, or the health dimensions of humanitarian emergencies, analysts and decision-makers require an evidence-base to inform equitable planning, policy making, and interventions. In addition to several existing emergencies rapid assessment tools, multidimensional poverty and vulnerability indices (MPIs or MVIs) have been used for measurement, analyses, and policy guidance in several countries around the world.  This research brief provides an overview of the use of MPIs and MVIs in health emergencies, with the goal of sharing insights and lessons learned. This brief shares experiences from Afghanistan, Colombia, Honduras, Iraq, and select countries in southern Asia. This research brief will also inform national health authorities when looking for ways to reinforce health equity into their measurement approaches in their policies before, during and after a health emergency.

This research brief was commissioned from OPHI by the World Health Organisation.

Citation: WHO (2021). Using multidimensional poverty and vulnerability indices to inform equitable policies and interventions in health emergencies. Research brief. World Health Organization.

Read more and download the Using multidimensional poverty and vulnerability indices to inform equitable policies and interventions in health emergencies.


‘Interlinkages between multidimensional poverty and electricity: A study using the global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)’ extends the analysis of global MPI microdata to explore the interlinkages between deprivation in electricity and other indicators related to health, education and living standards. The analysis identifies the most common simultaneous deprivations that people who are also electricity deprived experience in their everyday lives. It also looks at the relationship between electricity and poverty and economic development, measured using a multidimensional approach. The report identifies the distinctive profile of those who are poor and deprived in electricity, as well as examining a subset of countries to understand improvement in electricity access over time.


The 2020 global MPI report profiles a global study covering 5 billion people of harmonised trends in multidimensional poverty. It explores if countries, before the pandemic, were on track to halve their multidimensional poverty if observed trends continued. In the context of COVID-19, which unfolded as the report was compiled, the report offers simulations of the possible impacts of the pandemic on the global MPI. A decade away from the targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the report concludes with an in-depth analysis of multidimensional poverty from the perspective of a selection of SDGs.

Citation: UNDP and OPHI (2020). Global Multidimensional Poverty index 2020 – Charting Pathways out of Multidimensional Poverty: Achieving the SDGs. Report. Unite Nations Development Programme and Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative.

Download Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2020 – Charting pathways out of multidimensional poverty: Achieving the SDGs (available in English, French and Spanish).

This joint handbook by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford, provides practical guidance for policymakers, statisticians, practitioners and others seeking or engaged in developing a national Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). It is also intended as a resource for academics, journalists and others interested in broadening their country’s poverty metrics, in line with the 2030 Agenda and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Read more and download the Handbook

The 2019 global MPI publication Illuminating Inequalities released on 11 July 2019 sheds light on the number of people experiencing poverty at regional, national and subnational levels, revealing inequalities across countries and among the poor themselves. The publication is jointly developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) at the University of Oxford and the United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report Office (UNDP HDRO).

Read more and download the global MPI 2019 report

The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index Report: The Most Detailed Picture to Date of the World’s Poorest People presents the revised global MPI index which was launched jointly by OPHI and UNDP in September 2018.

Read more, and download the global MPI 2018 report

‘Economics among the Road Scholars’ is the first chapter of Jean Drèze’s book Sense and Solidarity: Jholawala Economics for Everyone (2017).

Read more, and download the chapter

The full book, published by Oxford University Press, is available as an open access title under the terms of a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence and free to download from the publisher’s website and here.

Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and Analysis by Sabina Alkire, James Foster, Suman Seth, Maria Emma Santos, José Manuel Roche and Paola Ballon, is an in-depth and precise account of multidimensional measurement. It is aimed at graduate students in quantitative social sciences, researchers of poverty measurement, and technical staff in governments and international agencies who create multidimensional poverty measures. The book was published by Oxford University Press in 2015.

Read more about the book

Co-authored by Sabina Alkire (OPHI), this report provides a comprehensive analysis of the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) baseline survey results, summarizing both findings from the WEAI survey and the relationships between the WEAI and various outcomes of interest to the US Government’s Feed the Future initiative. These poverty, health, and nutrition outcomes include both factors that might affect empowerment and outcomes that might result from empowerment.

Read more about the WEAI and download the report

Co-authored by Sabina Alkire (OPHI), this brochure gives an overview of the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) structure and purpose.

Read more about the WEAI and download the brochure

An Extensive Analysis of GNH Index (2012) presents and analyses the 2010 Gross National Happiness (GNH) Index that was developed at the Centre for Bhutan Studies for the Royal Government of Bhutan.

Find out more, and download the report

This guide, published in 2012, introduces the 2010 Gross National Happiness (GNH) Index of Bhutan. It explains the origins of the concept of GNH, its grounding in Bhutanese culture and history, and describes how the concept is being operationalised in the form of the GNH Index in some novel and innovative ways. The Index draws on 2010 GNH survey.


Find out more, and download the guide