Special Publications and Reports

This section includes books, briefings and reports authored or co-authored by OPHI.
To read  papers in OPHI Briefings series click here.

The joint OPHI and UNDP 2021 global MPI report profiles global multidimensional poverty covering 5.9 billion people. The 2021 report uses disaggregation and intrahousehold analyses to highlight inequalities along the lines of ethnicity, caste and gender to show who is being left behind and which interlinked deprivations are hindering progress in poverty reduction.   

Citation: UNDP and OPHI (2021). Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2021 – Unmasking disparities by ethnicity, caste and gender. United Nations Development Programme and Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative.

Download Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2021 in English, French and Spanish.

Download the ethnicity tables produced for the global MPI 2021 report from this page.

To prevent or mitigate the health equity impacts of health emergencies, or the health dimensions of humanitarian emergencies, analysts and decision-makers require an evidence-base to inform equitable planning, policy making, and interventions. In addition to several existing emergencies rapid assessment tools, multidimensional poverty and vulnerability indices (MPIs or MVIs) have been used for measurement, analyses, and policy guidance in several countries around the world.  This research brief provides an overview of the use of MPIs and MVIs in health emergencies, with the goal of sharing insights and lessons learned. This brief shares experiences from Afghanistan, Colombia, Honduras, Iraq, and select countries in southern Asia. This research brief will also inform national health authorities when looking for ways to reinforce health equity into their measurement approaches in their policies before, during and after a health emergency.

This research brief was commissioned from OPHI by the World Health Organisation.

Citation: WHO (2021). Using multidimensional poverty and vulnerability indices to inform equitable policies and interventions in health emergencies. Research brief. World Health Organization.

Read more and download the Using multidimensional poverty and vulnerability indices to inform equitable policies and interventions in health emergencies.


‘Interlinkages between multidimensional poverty and electricity: A study using the global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)’ extends the analysis of global MPI microdata to explore the interlinkages between deprivation in electricity and other indicators related to health, education and living standards. The analysis identifies the most common simultaneous deprivations that people who are also electricity deprived experience in their everyday lives. It also looks at the relationship between electricity and poverty and economic development, measured using a multidimensional approach. The report identifies the distinctive profile of those who are poor and deprived in electricity, as well as examining a subset of countries to understand improvement in electricity access over time.


The 2020 global MPI report profiles a global study covering 5 billion people of harmonised trends in multidimensional poverty. It explores if countries, before the pandemic, were on track to halve their multidimensional poverty if observed trends continued. In the context of COVID-19, which unfolded as the report was compiled, the report offers simulations of the possible impacts of the pandemic on the global MPI. A decade away from the targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the report concludes with an in-depth analysis of multidimensional poverty from the perspective of a selection of SDGs.

Citation: UNDP and OPHI (2020). Global Multidimensional Poverty index 2020 – Charting Pathways out of Multidimensional Poverty: Achieving the SDGs. Report. Unite Nations Development Programme and Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative.

Download Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2020 – Charting pathways out of multidimensional poverty: Achieving the SDGs (available in English, French and Spanish).

This joint handbook by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford, provides practical guidance for policymakers, statisticians, practitioners and others seeking or engaged in developing a national Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). It is also intended as a resource for academics, journalists and others interested in broadening their country’s poverty metrics, in line with the 2030 Agenda and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Read more and download the Handbook

The 2019 global MPI publication Illuminating Inequalities released on 11 July 2019 sheds light on the number of people experiencing poverty at regional, national and subnational levels, revealing inequalities across countries and among the poor themselves. The publication is jointly developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) at the University of Oxford and the United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report Office (UNDP HDRO).

Read more and download the global MPI 2019 report

The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index Report: The Most Detailed Picture to Date of the World’s Poorest People presents the revised global MPI index which was launched jointly by OPHI and UNDP in September 2018.

Read more, and download the global MPI 2018 report

‘Economics among the Road Scholars’ is the first chapter of Jean Drèze’s book Sense and Solidarity: Jholawala Economics for Everyone (2017).

Read more, and download the chapter

The full book, published by Oxford University Press, is available as an open access title under the terms of a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence and free to download from the publisher’s website and here.

Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and Analysis by Sabina Alkire, James Foster, Suman Seth, Maria Emma Santos, José Manuel Roche and Paola Ballon, is an in-depth and precise account of multidimensional measurement. It is aimed at graduate students in quantitative social sciences, researchers of poverty measurement, and technical staff in governments and international agencies who create multidimensional poverty measures. The book was published by Oxford University Press in 2015.

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Co-authored by Sabina Alkire (OPHI), this report provides a comprehensive analysis of the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) baseline survey results, summarizing both findings from the WEAI survey and the relationships between the WEAI and various outcomes of interest to the US Government’s Feed the Future initiative. These poverty, health, and nutrition outcomes include both factors that might affect empowerment and outcomes that might result from empowerment.

Read more about the WEAI and download the report

Co-authored by Sabina Alkire (OPHI), this brochure gives an overview of the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) structure and purpose.

Read more about the WEAI and download the brochure

An Extensive Analysis of GNH Index (2012) presents and analyses the 2010 Gross National Happiness (GNH) Index that was developed at the Centre for Bhutan Studies for the Royal Government of Bhutan.

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This guide, published in 2012, introduces the 2010 Gross National Happiness (GNH) Index of Bhutan. It explains the origins of the concept of GNH, its grounding in Bhutanese culture and history, and describes how the concept is being operationalised in the form of the GNH Index in some novel and innovative ways. The Index draws on 2010 GNH survey.


Find out more, and download the guide