National MPI Reports
A national Multidimensional Poverty Index is a country-specific poverty measure tailored to each country’s unique situation. Such measures generally take the dimensions of health, education and living standards as their starting point, and supplement with different dimensions measured by locally-appropriate indicators. This section includes national and subnational official MPI reports.
The India National Multidimensional Poverty Index: Baseline Report presents National, State/Union Territories and district results using data from the 2015/16 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4). The data provides a starting point from which to measure the effectiveness of multisectoral policies in poverty reduction and for tracking progress towards target 1.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals. The next report will analyse the 2019/20 NFHS-5 microdata, in order to identify reductions and trends since 2015/6. The Report has been developed by NITI Aayog in consultation with 12 Line Ministries and in partnership with State governments, OPHI and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Multidimensional Poverty in Sri Lanka presents findings from the first official permanent National MPI, and also presents a linked individual Child MPI for Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is the first country in the world to directly and fully include all indicators of their National MPI in their individual child MPI. This strategy, also known as the ‘drawer approach’ powerfully aligns policy implications as every child who is poor by the national MPI is also poor by the Child MPI. The Child MPI includes an additional fourth dimension with two indicators that cover children aged 0–4. This policy brief by the Department of Census and Statistics (DCS) in partnership with UNICEF and OPHI uses data from the Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2019 (HIES 2019).
The Malawi Multidimensional Poverty Index Report presents the results of the first national Multidimensional Poverty Index for Malawi. The Malawi MPI has been developed to monitor the key simultaneous disadvantages that affect people living in multidimensional poverty in Malawi, and to identify social progress made towards the Malawi 2063 national vision and target 1.2 of the SDGs. This report was produced by the National Statistical Office (NSO) in collaboration with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the University of Malawi (Economics Department), the Centre for Social Research, the National Planning Commission and the Ministry of Economic Planning and Development and Public Sector Reforms, with technical support from the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI). The Malawi MPI is based on data from the Fourth Integrated Household Survey (IHS4) 2016/17. This report offers a baseline for findings on multidimensional poverty and will be revised using data from the IHS5 survey (2019/20) to show changes in the levels and composition of multidimensional poverty.
Nepal Multidimensional Poverty Index: Analysis towards Action presents updated MPI figures and additional indicators reflecting the relationship between multidimensional poverty and vulnerability towards COVID-19 in Nepal. This report by the Government of Nepal National Planning Commission in partnership with OPHI, UNDP, and UNICEF uses 2014 and 2019 data from the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (NMICS).
This report (in Spanish) presents the findings of the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) of Paraguay, which aims to inform and guide poverty reduction strategies. The Paraguayan MPI was developed as part of a collaboration led by the National Statistics Institute (INE) of Paraguay, with technical support from OPHI.
This report presents the findings of the 2021 Namibian Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) which aims to inform and guide poverty reduction strategies. The Namibian MPI was developed as part of a collaboration led by the Namibia Statistics Agency (NSA), with UNICEF, UNDP, UNFPA, and OPHI.
This report presents the findings of the Multidimensional Poverty Index of Angola (IPM) -A) to guide more informed decisions on issues related to poverty eradication. The report is the product of the long and strategic partnership between the National Statistics Institute (INE), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI). Resulting from in-depth technical consultations, the Angolan MPI is made up four essential dimensions: health, education, quality of life and employment. The A-MPI will be an essential resource to inform the Integrated Plan for Local Development and Combat Poverty 2018–2022 (PIDLCP),which was approved by the Government of Angola. The index will be updated periodically, based on the results of the next IIMS 2020–2021 survey.
A report (in Spanish) looking at simulations of the possible impacts of COVID-19 on multidimensional poverty in the Dominican Republic. The simulations examine six possible scenarios of how changes in indicator deprivation could affect the MPI. For each scenario, the analysis considers three possible magnitudes: mild (25%), moderate (50%) and severe (75%).
This report presents the findings of the national Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for Ghana. The Ghana MPI was developed by the Ghana Statistical Services with support from the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the MPI National Steering Committee, and the University of Cape Coast. Technical support was provided by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI).
Ghana now joins several countries from across Africa in using an official MPI to measure and track multidimensional poverty. The Ghana MPI tracks twelve indicators relating to three dimensions: Living Standards, Education and Health. Using data from the seventh round of the Ghana Living Standards Survey conducted between 2016/2017 survey periods and from the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys conducted in 2011 and 2018, the report provides a comprehensive picture of multidimensional poverty across the regions of Ghana.
This briefing provides an overview of multidimensional poverty in the state of Chhattisgarh in India. According to the global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), Chhattisgarh had a dramatic reduction in multidimensional poverty. Ongoing policy investments will continue that remarkable trend.
This report presents the findings of the child MPI for Thailand, an official, permanent tool to measure multidimensional poverty among children aged 0-17 years. The child MPI was developed by the National Economic and Social Development Council (NESDC) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Thailand Country Office, with technical support from the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the UNICEF Thailand Country Office. The findings are intended to guide policymakers and other key stakeholders in their budgeting and targeting of social programmes so that children’s multidimensional poverty can be eliminated.
This report presents the findings of the national Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for the State of Palestine. The Palestinian MPI was developed by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) with technical support from the National Team for Poverty Combating and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI).
This report is the first that addresses multidimensional poverty in the State of Palestine. The MPI responds to a decree issued by the Palestinian Council of Ministers to evaluate multidimensional poverty within the preparation framework for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Palestinian National Policy Agenda (NPA).
This report presents the findings of the national Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for Maldives. The Maldives MPI was developed by National Bureau of Statistics in partnership with the UNICEF Regional Office South Asia (ROSA) and UNICEF Maldives with technical support from the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI).
Maldives joins the emerging group of small island developing states – now including Seychelles and Dominican Republic – that use an MPI to track multidimensional poverty. The challenges faced by Maldives include generational and gender inequalities and the need to provide equitable access to essential services across the islands. The MPI provides a tool to coordinate the efforts of multisectoral agencies working towards reducing inequality and poverty in the Strategic Action Plan 2019–2023, which is now being implemented in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
This report presents the findings of the national MPI for Seychelles. The Seychelles MPI was developed by the Poverty Alleviation Department and the National Bureau of Statistics of Seychelles with technical support from the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI). As a high-income country, and a Small Island Developing State, the challenges faced by Seychelles in poverty reduction are different from other contexts. Seychelles’ MPI, which includes innovative indicators on obesity, substance abuse and crime, can help policymakers identify those being left behind and target their programmes more effectively.
Produced by Statistics Sierra Leone and the Ministry of Planning and Economic Development, in collaboration with UNDP Sierra Leone and OPHI, this report was published in May 2019. It presents the new, official, Sierra Leone Multidimensional Poverty Index to monitor the reduction of poverty in all its dimensions and to provide relevant information to guide the implementation of social policies in Sierra Leone. The figures in this report provide critical baselines for the implementation of the Medium-term National Development Plan.
Authored by the National Statistics and Information Authority (NSIA) of Afghanistan in collaboration with OPHI, this Report was published in March 2019. It presents the new, official, Afghanistan Multidimensional Poverty Index (A-MPI) which aims to help the policy makers to coordinate the programmes that seek to reduce different forms of poverty.
This report is a joint product of the Central Bureau of Statistics of Nepal and OPHI. It presents Nepal’s official national Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) based on Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2014.
This report provides an overview of the multidimensional poverty in Bhutan based on the data from the Bhutan Living Standards Survey (BLSS) 2017.
This report, based on dataset drawn from national surveys on family and child health, assesses multidimensional poverty in the Arab region as part of the preparation for the implementation of the SDGs. The Report is available both in English and in Arabic.
Based on Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) developed by OPHI in collaboration with the HDRO–UNDP.
This report provides infographics describing the MPI constructed for Andhra Pradesh.
This report presents the first official national Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for Pakistan. It was co-authored by OPHI and UNDP-Pakistan and published in 2016. The report marks the first time that estimates of multidimensional poverty in Pakistan have been provided at the national, provincial and district levels. Moreover, it includes the trend analysis of multidimensional poverty in Pakistan between 2004 and 2015. Built using the PSLM datasets, the MPI for Pakistan has been estimated for every two-year period since 2004/5, and can be disaggregated by both provincial and district level.