Watch video (includes video guide)
The list below is not comprehensive, but covers some of the key research issues that have been identified by OPHI researchers. Please watch Part 2 of the video to get a further explanation by Sabina Alkire.
Research Issues: Data for MPI
- Can we improve international data for MPI calculations?
- Should we ‘call for’ a survey having a specific set of dimensions and indicators? And which?
Research Issues: General data
- Data Constraints: Most criticisms address these (why don’t you include _____?).
- identify ‘new’ questionnaires on standard surveys
- identify ‘new’ dimensions
- survey problems: individual level data, excluded populations
- the consequence of the combination of surveys, administrative data, mapping
- the consequence of the combination of data for different reference groups
Research issues: implementation of multidimensional measures
The example of the international MPI
- Robustness checks (weights, bootstrapping, household size, indicators)
- Aggregation within households – what biases exist?
- Households without eligible populations – the impact on the measure?
- Comparisons across surveys from different years – sample, respondents
- Thorough investigation into the assets indicator in the living standard dimension
- Indicator scrutiny: Stunting, Quality of Education, etc
- Which are the ideal indicators to use for an international MPI?
- Development of MPI-2 appropriate for countries with higher human development.
- Rural/Urban poverty? Should we adjust urban indicators?
- The impact of overlooked populations: elder poverty
General empirical implementation of the AF method: (example of questions)
- Statistical interrelationships among indicators – Systematic.
- The relationship between income/consumption poverty and deprivations
- Combining individual and household level data
- Investigate the issues of intra household inequalities, household composition, predicting household deprivations on multidimensional measures
- Weights (ordinal ranking)
- Development of group-specific indicators (child, ethnic minority)
- Multiple cut-offs with ordinal data (extreme poverty, poverty)
- Develop multidimensional health indicators, quality of schooling, governance, child poverty, etc.
- Use of biomedical data to set weights – nutrition measure
Research issues: the development of the methodology
- Develop time series and panel data methodologies, expand to include chronic poverty
- Robustness tests (weights, cut-offs, indicators)
- Test statistics, measurement error, uncertainty, inference
- Appropriate validation ‘tests’ for national measures
- Algorithm for adjusting weights for ordinal data and M1 M2
- Complementarity and Substitutability
- Chronic Multidimensional Poverty
- Axioms – for Chronic Multidimensional Poverty
- Characterisation of AF
- Axiom – post-identification decomposability
- Use of ordinal data and the depth of poverty
Guide to the video
00:00 Introduction and outline
Part 1: The Different Debates on the AF Method and its Implementation in the Global MPI
00:49 MPI in the Human Development Report 2010 fostered debate and critique from Ravallion and national governments [see Alkire and Foster (2011)]
03:05 Ravallion’s critique
03:58 Critique 1: a single index
10:01 Critique 2: why aggregate to later break the index down afterwards
13:37 Critique 3: attainment vs deprivation space
16:21 Critique 4: prices as weights
19:21 Alternative to index suggested: a dash board (see Identification and Aggregation in the Alkire Foster Method)
28:11 Critique 5: data constraints (can this be avoided?)
30:10 General critiques of international data by OPHI and others, OPHI’s response to data issue critique
32:55 Critique 6: lack of policy consultations/participation of the poor
35:09 The discussion and debate on weights
38:20 Research issues 1: data constraints, the ideal data, surveys etc.
44:34 Research issues 2: implementation of the Alkire Foster method. The example of the global MPI
57:55 Research issues 3: empirical questions
68:17 Research issues 4: development of methodology