Global MPI 2019

Goal 1 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is to end poverty in all its forms and dimensions. The global MPI 2019 offers a tool to make progress against this goal. It compares acute multidimensional poverty for 101 developing countries, which are home to 76% of the world’s population. Of the 5.7 billion people covered by the global MPI 2019 figures, 23% (1.3 billion) are identified as multidimensionally poor.

Produced in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Report Office (UNDP HDRO), our analysis of 2019 global multidimensional poverty offers both a global headline and fine-grained analysis for children, rural areas, 1,119 subnational regions and other critical subgroups. The global MPI provides a detailed image of who is poor while analysis of trends shows who, if any group, is being left behind.

Resources on the global MPI 2019:

Global MPI 2019 Report – Key findings

The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2019: Illuminating Inequalities presents the key findings of the global MPI 2019, an index based on a short but powerful list of 10 deprivations related to health, education and living standards.
Download the Report here.

The world is increasingly troubled by inequality. But how does inequality link to poverty? In the 2019 report, we use the global MPI to explore inequality among the multidimensionally poor. We disaggregate by urban/rural area, subnational region, and age to identify the poorest of the poor, and we use innovative methods to explore intrahousehold inequalities, growth in the ‘bottom 40%’ and relationships with the Gini coefficient. We also preview trends in 10 countries drawn from an ongoing study of trends across most countries. Key findings are:

  • Across 101 countries, 1.3 billion people—23.1 percent—are multidimensionally poor.
  • Two-thirds of multidimensionally poor people live in middle-income countries.
  • There is massive variation in multidimensional poverty within countries. For example, Uganda’s national multidimensional poverty rate (55.1 percent) is similar to the Sub-Saharan Africa average (57.5 percent), but the incidence of multidimensional poverty in Uganda’s provinces ranges from 6.0 percent to 96.3 percent, a range similar to that of national multidimensional poverty rates in Sub-Saharan Africa (6.3–91.9 percent).
  • Half of the 1.3 billion multidimensionally poor people are children under age 18. A third are children under age 10.
  • This year’s spotlight on child poverty in South Asia reveals considerable diversity. While 10.7 percent of South Asian girls are out of school and live in a multidimensionally poor household, that average hides variation: in Afghanistan 44.0 percent do.
  • In South Asia 22.7 percent of children under age 5 experience intrahousehold inequality in deprivation in nutrition (where at least one child in the household is malnourished and at least one child in the household is not). In Pakistan over a third of children under age 5 experience such intrahousehold inequality.
  • Of 10 selected countries for which changes over time were analysed, India and Cambodia reduced their MPI values the fastest—and they did not leave the poorest groups behind.
  • There is wide variation across countries in inequality among multidimensionally poor people—that is, in the intensity of poverty experienced by each poor person. For example, Egypt and Paraguay have similar MPI values, but inequality among multidimensionally poor people is considerably higher in Paraguay.
  • There is little or no association between economic inequality (measured using the Gini coefficient) and the MPI value.
  • In the 10 selected countries for which changes over time were analysed, deprivations declined faster among the poorest 40 percent of the population than among the total population.