OPHI Advisor Amartya Sen discusses the value of economic growth as useful means to achieve things that we ultimately value, including a better quality of life. Read Sen’s full op-ed in The Hindu.
OPHI Summer School 2023: Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and Analysis
Organised by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford, and hosted by the Centre for the Sustainable Development Goals for Latin America (CODS), Universidad de los Andes in Bogotá, Colombia.
Application deadline: 14 April 2023. Please apply, even if you do not have funding, to secure your place.
Course dates: 4–14 July 2023
Location: Bogotá , Colombia
The Summer School is aimed at those who are working on, or actively interested in gaining skills in, multidimensional poverty measurement, particularly professional staff of national offices of statistics and government ministries that deal with poverty reduction, professionals from international development institutions, academics, and doctoral students. The Summer School will be led by OPHI Director, Sabina Alkire, and the OPHI team, including researchers and academics with extensive experience of developing and implementing Multidimensional Poverty Indices (MPIs).
The purpose of this intensive Summer School is to provide a technical introduction to multidimensional poverty measurement using the Alkire-Foster (AF) method, and to share examples of its practical applications. Upon completing the course, students will have the skills required to construct and analyse a multidimensional poverty measure and will be able to describe its policy relevance and usefulness for analytical purposes. Drawing on Amartya Sen’s capability approach and empirical examples of national and global MPIs, the conceptual and empirical motivation for measuring multidimensional poverty will be presented, as well as the full suite of measurement tools.
By the end of the course, participants will be able to:
- Understand the conceptual and empirical motivation for measuring multidimensional poverty
- Understand the Alkire-Foster (AF) method and apply it to compute a multidimensional index
- Interpret and effectively communicate results, including subgroup decomposition and dimensional breakdown
- Understand how the multidimensional measure can be used as a policy tool
- Understand the advantages and limits of different data sources for measuring multidimensional poverty using the Alkire-Foster method
- Understand the key properties and uses of national and cross-national multidimensional measures (e.g. global MPI)
The Summer School is a full-time, in-person course taught in English. It consists of two full weeks of instructions, accompanied by working group sessions. Throughout the course, participants will attend lectures and Q&A sessions with OPHI Director Sabina Alkire and OPHI researchers and be actively involved in discussions, and work through problem sets in small groups using Stata.
- A demonstrable knowledge of Stata is an essential pre-requisite for attending the course. This will be assessed as part of the application process.
- A strong knowledge of quantitative methods and a strong interest in poverty measurement and analysis are highly desirable.
- The Summer School will be delivered in English so a high level of English language ability is necessary.
- Participants will need to have their own laptops to access relevant material of the course such as readings, and Stata exercises. Please make sure that your device can run the latest version of Stata.
*Participants are required to fulfil all country and COVID-19 related travel and entry requirements. For details, please visit www.migracioncolombia.gov.co
Fees and Funding
- £600 GBP for students and developing country researchers
- £1,400 GBP for developing country professionals
- £2,000 GBP for developed country professionals
*Participants are required to arrange and pay for accommodation, flights, and any other expenses (e.g. insurance, tests, quarantine, and medical treatment)
Applicants are highly encouraged to seek support from their local governments and institutions or external funders. We are happy to provide support letters for such funding applications to accepted candidates.
Limited financial support may be available. Competition for financial support will be strong. However, well-qualified and committed applicants with financial needs are encouraged to apply.
How to Apply
To apply, please complete the online application form by 14 April 2023. We encourage you to apply to secure your place, even if you still do not have funding. As part of the application, you are asked to submit an up-to-date curriculum vitae, a sample Stata .do file, and a sample of your written work. Applicants will be evaluated based on the information provided in their application.
Please note that participants must arrange their own accommodation. Here are some suggestions based on proximity:
- City U (Student accommodation) / 3 min walking – 29 GBP
- Hotel BH Bocentenatio / 6 min walking – 36 GBP
- Suites Tequendama y Hotel / 23 min walking – 35 GBP
- Hotel Ibis / 22 min walking – 38 GBP
If you have any questions about the course or require help with your application, please contact us on: email@example.com
Job Title: Senior Advisor for Strategic Affairs
Andres Rugeles is the Senior Advisor for Strategic Affairs at OPHI. In this role, he is responsible for creating and strengthening high-level and strategic partnerships with key actors in Latin America (public sector, international organisations, and civil society), to increase OPHI´s impact, presence and institutional alliances beyond the LAC region; and to contribute to the mobilisation of resources with new and existing institutional partners.
He has extensive experience of 25 years in the fields of multilateral development banking, as well as in foreign affairs, and Latin American regional integration.
He is an Associate Member of the Latin America Centre at the University of Oxford, a member of the Advisory Board of the Global South Unit at the London School of Economics (LSE), and an international affiliate scholar at Cornell University.
Previously he served as Ambassador and Deputy Permanent Representative of Colombia to the United Nations in New York; Secretary of Transparency of Colombia; Secretary General, Chief of Cabinet and General Advisor of the President, and Representative in Argentina at CAF – Development Bank of Latin America; Chief of Cabinet of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Colombia; among others.
MSc Politics of the World Economy, London School of Economics (LSE)
BA Political science with an emphasis in economy and Latin American Studies, Universidad de los Andes
Advanced studies in negotiation and leadership at Harvard University.
International politics and foreign affairs; economic and social development; and regional integration.
His most recent research was about the key challenges of Latin America for its future, which are divided in six axes: poverty and inequality, economic growth and productivity, environment, democracy, regional integration, and international affairs.
Rugeles, Andres (2024). América Latina: la visión de sus lideres. Editorial Planeta. To be launched in June 2024.
In addition, he regularly writes opinion columns and articles for national and international newspapers and media.
Foreign Affairs Latinoamerica
Latin Trade Magazine
Hilary Term 2023
The following HDRO-IIEP-OPHI seminars will take place on Wednesdays at 4pm–5.15pm in person in Meeting Room A in Queen Elizabeth House, and online via Zoom. Light refreshments will be provided. A list of seminars and provisional titles is provided below.
Sola Afolayan and Prince Adeyemi Adeniran, Federal Government of Nigeria
1 February: ‘Nigeria Multidimensional Poverty Index (2022)’ (Please note this session will be in Seminar Room 3)
Vladimir Hlasny and Hassan Hamie, UN ESCWA
8 February: ‘Optimized multidimensional poverty reduction subject to aid targeting and tailoring: A variety of models centered on policy-makers’ capabilities’
Kirsten Sehnbruch and Mauricio Apablaza, London School of Economics
15 February: ‘Cumulative deprivations in the labour market‘
Nicolai Suppa, OPHI and Centre for Demographic Studies in Barcelona
22 February: ‘Multidimensional Poverty in Europe: A Longitudinal Perspective‘
Piotr R. Paradowski, Jörg Neugschwender and Heba Omar, LIS Cross-National Data Centre, Luxembourg
1 March: ‘Methodological approaches on how to measure risk of poverty with income and wealth‘
Putu Natih, OPHI and FEB Universitas Indonesia
8 March: ‘Multidimensional Poverty Dynamics in Indonesia in the time of COVID-19: Lessons Learned and Policy Implications’
Maria Emma Santos, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Argentina
15 March: ‘Counting and Accounting: Measuring the Effectiveness of Fiscal Policy in Multidimensional Poverty Reduction’
In this paper we develop the Participatory Index of Women’s Empowerment, an innovative measurement tool that reflects its subjects’ own perceptions of empowerment. Participatory measurement is a response to the paradoxical potential for measurement of empowerment to disempower. A simple stated choice experiment allows participants to implicitly reveal the trade-offs that they make between different indicators of empowerment. This permits participatory determination of the relative weights for each indicator in a composite index, through estimation of a random utility model. We demonstrate the implementation of PIWE through a pilot application in the context of a quasi-experimental impact evaluation of an Oxfam project in Tunisia. Despite a relatively small sample size, we can reject the hypothesis that participants’ perceptions of empowerment are consistent with equal weights. We find that the project had a significant positive impact on participants’ empowerment and find suggestive evidence of impact on their perceptions of empowerment.
Citation: Quinn, N.N. and Lombardini, S. (2023). ‘The Participatory Index of Women’s Empowerment: Development and an application in Tunisia’, OPHI Research in Progress 67a, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.
This paper describes the database The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI): Harmonised Level Estimates and their Changes over Time. The global MPI is an international poverty measure based on ten deprivation indicators in three dimensions: health, education, and living standards. The database contains estimates for the multidimensional poverty index itself (the adjusted headcount ratio), related partial indices such as the headcount ratio, the intensity, indicator-specific indices, and several auxiliary statistics as well as changes over time for most quantities. For this database all deprivation indicators have been harmonised over time. Our database covers estimates for 84 countries and 814 subnational regions for up to four points of observation. The estimates are based on 211 individual survey datasets, mostly the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS). Combining information of different dimensions of human well-being, the global MPI inherently invites interdisciplinary research.
Citation: Suppa, N. and Kanagaratnam, U. (2023). ‘The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index: Harmonised level estimates and their changes over time’, OPHI Research in Progress 66a, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.
Understanding Multidimensional Vulnerabilities: Impact on People of Sri Lanka presents findings from the Multidimensional Vulnerability Index (MVI) derived from the National Citizen Survey 2022–2023 initiated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Sri Lanka, which was administered with the objective of capturing a snapshot of vulnerabilities experienced by Sri Lankans during the economic downturn.
The report was produced by the UNDP Sri Lanka in collaboration with the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI)
Citation: UNDP (2023). Understanding Multidimensional Vulnerabilities: Impact on People of Sri Lanka, United Nations Development Programme, Colombo.
The Second Malawi Multidimensional Poverty Index Report presents the results of the second national Multidimensional Poverty Index for Malawi. The Malawi MPI was first launched in 2021. The M-MPI report assesses Malawi’s progress on SDG Target 1.2 (reducing at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all dimensions) and the implementation of commitments in Malawi 2063 First Implementation Plan (MIP-1).
Citation: NSO Malawi and MFEA (2022). The Second Malawi Multidimensional Poverty Index Report, National Statistical Office of Malawi; Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs, Malawi.
In this paper we propose indicators of impact and spending effectiveness of fiscal interventions for multidimensional poverty reduction. We bring together CEQ’s fiscal incidence methodology with OPHI’s multidimensional poverty methodology, using an MPI with the M_0 structure as the metric for evaluation. The effectiveness indicators in the multidimensional case need to simultaneously consider the best allocation of money across dimensions (which deprivations to lift?) and across households (to whom should they be lifted?). In the impact effectiveness indicator, the observed poverty reduction is compared against the optimal reduction that could have been achieved. In turn, the spending effectiveness indicator compares the observed spent budget with the minimum budget that could have been spent to achieve the same poverty reduction had the money been allocated optimally. We consider two alternative criteria to find the optimal allocation: one that prioritizes reducing poverty (either incidence or intensity) to the biggest number of people – the MaxN-LNOB criterion – and another which prioritizes reducing poverty among poorest poor – the LNOB-MaxN criterion – which is a form of prioritarianism. When household sizes are ignored or poverty identification is done at the individual level, the two criteria coincide. The proposed methodology can be implemented using cross-sectional household survey (or census) data, alongside information on the cost of removing each deprivation at the household level, and information on the public spending the government has allocated or plans to allocate to the dimensions under analysis. The methodology can be implemented ex-post, as an effectiveness assessment, as well as ex-ante, to guide a multidimensional poverty reduction programme.
Citation: Santos, M.E., Lustig, N. and Zanetti, M.M. (2023). ‘Counting and accounting: Measuring the effectiveness of fiscal policy in multidimensional poverty reduction’, OPHI Working Paper 144, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.
This paper is published also in the CEQ Institute Working Papers series: Santos, M.E., Lustig, N. and Zanetti, M.M. (2023). ‘Counting and accounting: Measuring the effectiveness of fiscal policy in multidimensional poverty reduction’, CEQ Working Paper No. 127, May 2023.
Most poverty measures identify a household as poor based on achievements of all its members, hence gendered and intrahousehold inequalities are not illuminated even when data for individual household members exist. This paper provides a framework for jointly analysing individual deprivations alongside poverty status and composition, to illuminate gendered and intrahousehold disparities and intergenerational patterns. The illustration applies the methodology to multidimensional poverty in seven countries in South Asia and monetary poverty in Pakistan. The paper thus prototypes a general methodology that can be incorporated into standard poverty reporting to shine a light jointly on individual deprivations and household poverty.
Citation: Alkire, S. and Ul Haq, R. (2023). ‘Analyzing individual deprivations alongside household poverty: Possibilities for gendered, intrahousehold and multidimensional analyses’, OPHI Research in Progress No. 65a, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.
The National Multidimensional Poverty Index: A Progress Review 2023, published by NITI Aayog, presents the second edition of the national MPI for India and is a follow-up to the Baseline Report published in November 2021. It provides multidimensional poverty estimates for India’s 36 States and Union Territories, along with 707 administrative districts across 12 indicators of the national MPI. These estimates have been computed using data from the 5th round of the NFHS (NFHS-5) conducted in 2019-21, employing the same methodology as the baseline report. This edition also presents the changes in multidimensional poverty between the survey periods of NFHS-4 (2015-16) and NFHS-5 (2019-21). India has achieved a remarkable reduction in its MPI value and Headcount Ratio between 2015-16 and 2019-21, indicating success of the country’s commitment and action to address the multidimensional nature of poverty through its multisectoral approach.
Citation: NITI Aayog (2023). India. National Multidimensional Poverty Index: A Progress Review 2023. NITI Aayog, Government of India, New Delhi.