On Monday 23 April, José Manuel Roche, OPHI Research Officer, gave a graduate seminar at the New School, New York to students of the Child Right and Poverty in Development course. Alberto Minujin, Professor at the Graduate Program in International Affairs at the New School, invited José to present joint work with Sabina Alkire on child poverty measurement, using the Alkire Foster method, to students studying for the masters degree International Affairs. Coure details.
We consider the relationships between multidimensional and monetary poverty indices in international and national poverty profiles, and evaluate the empirical consequences of identifying poor people relying on a combination of both approaches. Taking first a cross-country perspective, focusing on the developing world, we find that the incidence of poverty accord- ing to money metrics and the global MPI, a non-monetary measure of poverty, are correlated. This correlation breaks down in poorer countries. We use micro-data from six countries to study the joint densities of monetary and multidimensional welfare and the poverty identification mismatches for a comprehensive array of poverty line pairs. Mismatches are important, particularly, again, in the poorer countries. Although mismatches could be solved by combining both approaches in a dual cutoff poverty measure, the choice of the monetary poverty line remains a considerable issue as it changes the non-monetary composition of poverty.
Citation: Evans, M. Nogales, R. and Robson, M. (2020). ‘Monetary and multidimensional poverty: Correlations, mismatches, and joint distributions’, OPHI Working Paper 133, University of Oxford.
The global Multidimensional Poverty Index, published annually since 2010, captures acute multidimensional poverty in the developing regions of the world. In 2018, five of its ten indicators were revised with the purpose of aligning the index to the SDGs insofar as current data permit. This paper provides comprehensive analyses of the consequences of this revision from three perspectives. First, we offer new empirical insights available from the revised specification. Second, we analyse its robustness to changes in some key parameters, including the poverty cutoff and dimensional weights. Third, we compare the revised and the original specifications by implementing both on the same 105 national datasets. The country orderings in the revised specification are found to be robust to plausible parametric alternatives. Largely, these country orderings are at least as robust as the original one. Additional research on robustness standards is suggested.
Citation: Alkire, S., Kanagaratnam, U., Nogales, R. and Suppa, N. (2020). ‘Revising the global Multidimensional Poverty Index: Empirical insight and robustness’, OPHI Research in Progress 56a, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.
This report presents the findings of the national Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for the State of Palestine. The Palestinian MPI was developed by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) with technical support from the National Team for Poverty Combating and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI).
This report is the first that addresses multidimensional poverty in the State of Palestine, and responds to a decree issued by the Palestinian Council of Ministers to evaluate multidimensional poverty within the preparation framework for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Palestinian National Policy Agenda (NPA).
The Palestinian MPI consists of seven dimensions tailored to the particular context of Palestine. Six of these dimensions comprise the social well-being component and cover 21 indicators in education, health, employment, housing conditions and access to services, safety and use of assets, and personal freedom. A seventh dimension—monetary poverty—captures economic well-being using the national poverty line. The Palestinian MPI uses 2016/17 PECS survey data with substantial revisions on the household part of the instrument.
Key findings based on 2016/2017 data include:
- The overall incidence of multidimensional poverty was 24%, which is slightly lower than the monetary poverty line (29%).
- In terms of incidence, multidimensional poverty in the Gaza Strip is four times (45%) as prevalent as in the West Bank (11%).
- The intensity of multidimensional poverty in Palestine is 42.4%. People in poverty face on average 42.4% of the weighted sum of indicators. The disparity in incidence between the Gaza Strip and the West Bank is not reflected in the intensity of poverty which is 43.3% in the Gaza Strip and 40.0% in the West Bank.
- Overall, the MPI is 0.102. This sets a baseline for future comparisons.
- Poverty is more severe in refugee camps than in urban and rural areas. The incidence of poverty is 39% in refugee camps, whereas it is 14% in rural areas and 24% in urban areas.
Read more and download the report here.
This report presents the findings of the national Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for Maldives. The Maldives MPI was developed by the National Bureau of Statistics in partnership with the UNICEF Regional Office South Asia (ROSA) and UNICEF Maldives with technical support from the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI).
The results are based on data from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) 2016/17. The Maldives MPI tracks eight indicators relating to three dimensions: health, education and information, and living standards.
The MPI provides a tool to coordinate the efforts of multisectoral agencies working towards reducing inequality and poverty in the Strategic Action Plan 2019–2023, which is now being implemented in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Key findings based on data 2016/2017 include:
- The incidence of poverty (H) in Maldives was 28%, and the average intensity (A) was 51%.The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), which is the product of H and A, was 0.145.
- In Maldives, more people were living in multidimensional poverty (28%) than monetary poverty (8% were living below the poverty line of MVR 74).
- The report indicates that 87% of people who are multidimensionally poor were living in the Atolls, but only 13% on the populous capital island of Male’.
- At the national level, years of schooling contributed the most to overall poverty in Maldives at 19%, and access to health contributed 16%.
- Children have been bearing the greatest burden of poverty and have a higher likelihood of being multidimensionally poorer than any other age group, with one third of 0–17 year olds living in MPI poor households.
Download the report here.
This report presents the findings of the national MPI for Seychelles. The Seychelles MPI was developed by the Poverty Alleviation Department and the National Bureau of Statistics of Seychelles with technical support from the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI). As a high-income country, and a Small Island Developing State, the challenges faced by Seychelles in poverty reduction are different from other contexts. Seychelles’ MPI, which includes innovative indicators on obesity, substance abuse and crime, can help policymakers identify those being left behind and target their programmes more effectively.
Key findings include:
- In the third quarter of 2019, the poverty incidence (H) was 11.88%, and the average intensity (A) was 33.26%. The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), which is the product of H and A (H*A) was 0.040.
- Those living in the largest households may be more likely to experience multidimensional poverty (with a headcount ratio of 31.15%), than those living in the smallest households (with a headcount ratio of 4.89%).
- Multidimensional poverty is more prevalent among the unemployed (with a headcount ratio of 57.35%), than among those who are employed and those who are outside the labour force.
- The lower the education level (no schooling), the higher the headcount ratio (34.58%). The same pattern can be observed in the MPI, whereby those with no schooling, has the highest MPI (0.115), and the MPI decreases as the education level increases.
Download the report here.
OPHI Briefing 54 (PDF, 16 pages)
This briefing provides a rapid assessment of vulnerabilities to COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa according to three indicators from the 2019 global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). It analyses deprivations in nutrition, drinking water and cooking fuel across 467 subnational regions and 40 countries.
Download the briefing here.
Authors: Sabina Alkire, Jakob Dirksen, Ricardo Nogales and Christian Oldiges.
Citation: Alkire, S., Dirksen, J., Nogales, R. and Oldiges, C. (2020). ‘Multidimensional Poverty and Vulnerability to COVID-19: A Rapid Overview of Disaggregated and Interlinked Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa’, OPHI Briefing 54, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.
- Poverty and COVID-19
- Emergency Response
- Post-emergency Response
- Country Resources
- Useful Links Concerning COVID-19
- COVID-19 Webinars
This briefing provides an overview of multidimensional poverty in the state of Chhattisgarh in India. According to the global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), Chhattisgarh had a dramatic reduction in multidimensional poverty. Ongoing policy investments will continue that remarkable trend.
- From 2005/6 to 2015/16, the multidimensional poverty rate was cut from 70% to 37%, bringing 7 million people out of poverty.
- The MPI for Chhattisgarh was more than halved (from 0.355 to 0.153) during that decade.
- In 2005/6 it was the fifth poorest state; in 2015/16 it had improved to seventh poorest.
- Huge strides were made in reducing undernutrition, inadequate sanitation, solid cooking fuel, housing materials, and assets. All 10 MPI indicators had significant reductions.
- The changes were pro-poorest. Those living in rural areas, children, and members of Scheduled Tribes are the poorest groups, and all these groups reduced MPI the fastest. They are not being left behind but are catching up.
- Yet in 2015/16, 37% of people – 11 million – were still MPI poor, and 93% of these live in rural areas and 5.1 million were members of Scheduled Tribes. One quarter of poor people are children under 10 years of age.
- District-level poverty varies. The poorest districts are Bastar, Narayanpur, and Dakshin Bastar Dantewada.
- Ending multidimensional poverty requires integrated investments in nutrition (especially for children), improved housing materials, clean energy, and adequate sanitation.
Download the briefing here.
This short report is based on the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) n collaboration with the Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
The report contains well-designed infographics presenting the MPI constructed especially for Andhra Pradesh. The MPI is based on survey conducted in 2016–17 using an effective sample of 12,325 households and 43,664 household members across all districts in the State.
Download the report here.
- MD Poverty Profile in Palestine 2017 (2020)
- National MD Poverty in Maldives 2020
- MD Poverty Index 2019: Seychelles (2020)
- MD Poverty in Chhattisgarh (2020)
- Child MD Poverty in Thailand (2019)
- How to Build … (2019)
- Global MPI 2019
- Sierra Leone MPI 2019
- Afghanistan MPI 2016/17
- The Global MPI 2018
- Nepal MPI 2018
- Bhutan MPI 2017
- Drèze 2017
- Arab MD Poverty Report 2017
- Andhra Pradesh MPI 2017
- MD Poverty in Pakistan (2016)
- MD Poverty Measurement and Analysis (2015)
- An Extensive Analysis of GNH Index (2012)
- GNH and GNH Index (2012)