Category Archives: OPHI Briefing

Public Private Partnership: The Multidimensional Poverty Index (13 pages)

Brief39_thumbOPHI Briefing 39 (PDF)

Draft submitted to UNDP’s forthcoming Human Development Report, Regional Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean, New York: UNDP.

In this paper we are dealing with poverty—with those people who live below what is considered by the society as the minimum acceptable of level of deprivations that people could and should suffer. Traditionally, income has been used as a proxy for poverty, with national governments establishing income poverty lines under which a person is considered poor, and therefore eligible for special efforts by government to move them above that established threshold. Multidimensional poverty acts in a similar way, but now looking at poverty in the many dimensions that batter a poor person’s life at the same time causing them to fall below the multidimensional poverty line established by the Multidimensional Poverty Index. The MPI can give data on the places poor people live, their ethnic composition, their religion, and the composition of each poor person’s poverty. But in all this, the MPI is focused on those who are poor—not on society as a whole. The MPI is a poverty measure.

Authors: John Hammock and Jose Aguilar
Year: 2016

Citation: Hammock, J. and Aguilar, J. (2016). ‘Public Private Partnership: The Multidimensional Poverty Index’, OPHI Briefing 39, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

Poverty Maps (3 pages)

Thumbnail of Poverty Maps briefOPHI Briefing 37 (PDF)

Poverty maps provide a detailed picture of the location and interlinked conditions of the poorest, so that policies can be most effectively designed and targeted. The Global MPI 2015/16 now maps a total of 990 subnational regions across 78 countries. These poverty maps cover 98.5% of MPI poor people. That is, thanks to improved DHS/MICS and national data, OPHI maps the MPI conditions for 4.8 billion people, of whom 1.5 billion are MPI poor. We use recently updated countries – Bangladesh, Malawi and Yemen – to illustrate maps’ value-added.

Authors: Sabina Alkire and Gisela Robles
Year: 2015

Citation: Alkire, S. and Robles, G. (2015). ‘Poverty maps’, OPHI Briefing 37, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

Global MPI: 5-year methodological note

Thumbnail of Global MPI 5-year methodology brief

OPHI Briefing (MPI Methodological Note) 38 (PDF)

This document synthesizes all foregoing studies, to provide under one cover a comprehensive guide to the methodology of estimating and reporting the global MPI in 2015. Recall that the methodology for the first global MPI was first issued in a working paper co-published by OPHI and HDRO, by Alkire and Santos (2010). The underlying methodology, dimensions, indicators, and cutoffs have remained unchanged since 2010. Yet adjustments have been made by HDRO’s and OPHI’s mutual agreement. Each year a methodological document has accompanied the global MPI launch, and has transparently documented any agreed methodological adjustments included in that year’s estimations. Previously published estimations were not changed. This document summarizes how the Global MPI 2015 is computed, drawing on each previous Methodological document sequentially. However before moving to the specifications we provide a brief intuitive introduction to the MPI and its linked partial and subindices, as well as clarifying how the Global MPI differs from official national poverty statistics.

Authors: Sabina Alkire, Adriana Conconi, Gisela Robles, José M. Roche, María Emma Santos, Suman Seth and Ana Vaz
Year: 2016

MPI – Winter 2015/16: Brief methodological note and results

Thumbnail of Global MPI 5-year methodology brief

OPHI Briefing 36

The Winter Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2015/16 updates (released December 2015,
henceforth MPI 2015/16) use the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the
same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. The main
MPI updates are released in summer; Winter MPI Updates provide the opportunity to share new
estimations for any databases that have been processed. This brief methodological note presents the
Winter 2015/16 MPI updates, and releases the tables with the full results: national MPI, destitution and
vulnerability results, rural, urban, subnational region, changes over time, and complete estimations, as well
as complementary data, dimensional breakdowns, and confidence intervals.

Authors: Sabina Alkire and Gisela Robles
Year:
2015

Destitution: Who and Where are the Poorest of the Poor?

destitution

OPHI Briefing 35

Since 2014, OPHI has used more extreme MPI indicators to shine a light on hundreds of millions of people who each day face grinding hardships difficult for most of us to imagine: the destitute, or poorest of the poor. This briefing reveals that although it would be a tremendous step forward to succeed in eradicating extreme income poverty, we would still risk leaving many of the poorest of the poor behind, whose destitution, surprisingly, is not captured in the $1.25/day measure. Having multiple measures of poverty can thus help ensure uncounted pockets of poverty are not overlooked.

Authors: Sabina Alkire, Adriana Conconi, Gisela Robles and Ana Vaz
Year:
2015

Citation: Alkire, S., Conconi, A., Robles, G. and Vaz, A. (2015). ‘Destitution: Who and where are the poorest of the poor?’, OPHI Briefing 35, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

Exploring Multidimensional Poverty in China

Poverty-in-China-2015_digita

OPHI Briefing 34

Multidimensional Poverty in China affects nearly 5.5 per cent of the population, with variation across regions and by social groups. Multidimensionally poor people are not necessarily income poor and vice versa. This briefing paper presents and analyses the Global MPI estimations for China using 2012 data. It aims to explore in a preliminary way how the Global MPI may vary across different groups and regions.

Authors: Sabina Alkire and Yangyang Shen
Year:
2015

Citation: Alkire, S. and Shen, Y. (2015). ‘Exploring Multidimensional Poverty in China’, OPHI Briefing 34, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2015 (8 pages)

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OPHI Policy Briefing 33

The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) is an index of acute multidimensional poverty that covers over 100 developing countries. It assesses the nature and intensity of poverty at the individual level, by directly measuring the overlapping deprivations poor people experience simultaneously. It provides a vivid picture of how and where people are poor, within and across countries, regions and the world, enabling policymakers to better target their resources at those most in need through policy interventions that tackle the many different aspects of poverty together. This briefing paper explains how the Global MPI is constructed and how it can be used, and summarises a number of analyses of the Global MPI figures released in June 2015.

Authors: Sabina Alkire, Christoph Jindra, Gisela Robles Aguilar, Suman Seth and Ana Vaz
Year:
2015

Citation: Alkire, S., Jindra, C., Robles Aguilar, G., Seth, S. and Vaz, A. (2015). ‘Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2015’, OPHI Briefing 33, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2015 (2 pages)

MPI-2015-2-pager_WEB

OPHI Policy Briefing 32

The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) is an index of acute multidimensional poverty that in 2015 covers 101 developing countries. It assesses the nature and intensity of poverty at the individual level, by directly measuring the overlapping deprivations poor people experience simultaneously. It provides a vivid picture of how and where people are poor, within and across countries, regions and the world, enabling policymakers to better target their resources at those most in need. This briefing document provides an overview of key findings from the 2015 annual updates of the Global MPI.

Authors: Sabina Alkire, Christoph Jindra and Gisela Robles Aguilar
Year:
2015

Citation: Alkire, S., Jindra, C. and Robles Aguilar, G. (2015). ‘Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2015’, OPHI Briefing 32, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

Multidimensional Poverty Index – 2015: Brief Methodological Note and Results

brief_method_note

OPHI Briefing 31

The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) (released June 2015, henceforth MPI 2015) uses the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. The main innovations in 2015 consisted in: updating the estimations for a larger series of countries than any previous year, providing further disaggregation of the estimations of MPI, destitution and inequality among the poor to regional level, providing the standard errors and confidence intervals of MPI and the headcount ratio (H), and providing a list of previous estimations.

This brief methodological note presents the 2015 MPI updates, and the tables with the full results. It first explains the main updates in the 2015 MPI, following the guidelines for updates presented in the 2014 Methodological Note (Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). It summarizes the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in previous methodological notes (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011; Alkire, Conconi and Roche 2013; Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). Then it briefly describes the methodological assumptions considered for the estimation of each dataset. The results of such estimation are presented in the form of 6 main tables, 101 country briefings and the interactive Databank, all available on OPHI’s website.

From January 2015, the global MPI estimations are updated twice per year. This methodological note appends the considerations for the new country estimations.

Authors: Sabina Alkire and Gisela Robles

Year: 2015

Measuring Multidimensional Poverty: Insights from Around the World

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OPHI Briefing 30

This brochure provides examples of how the Alkire Foster method is being used to inform policies to reduce multidimensional poverty in countries around the world.

Author: Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI)
Year: 2015

Citation: OPHI (2015). ‘Measuring multidimensional poverty: Insights from around the world’, OPHI Briefing 30, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.