Category Archives: OPHI Briefing

Multidimensional Poverty and COVID-19 in Latin America and the Caribbean: Recent Trends and the Route Ahead

OPHI Briefing 57 (PDF)

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has altered people’s lives in a multifaceted way. It is now clear that the progress in poverty reduction is also at stake. This briefing analyses the most recent and up-to-date trends in multidimensional poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) prior to the pandemic, which is essential for understanding both the progress made in the past and for use as a benchmark for the future.

The briefing first presents the levels of multidimensional poverty in LAC according to the global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2020.

Erratum: The source for Table A1 in the Appendix is erroneously stated as ‘Alkire, Nogales, Quinn, and Suppa (2020)’ in the briefing. The correct source information for this table should read ‘Alkire, Kanagaratnam and Suppa (2020).

Download OPHI Briefing 57.

Authors: Hector Moreno and Mónica Pinilla-Roncancio
Year: 2021

Citation: Moreno, H. and Pinilla-Roncancio, M. (2021). ‘Multidimensional Poverty and COVID-19 in Latin America and the Caribbean: Recent Trends and the Route Ahead’, OPHI Briefing 57, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

Multidimensional Poverty and COVID-19 Risk Factors: A Rapid Overview of Interlinked Deprivations across 5.8 Billion People

OPHI Briefing 53a (PDF, 12 pages)

Multidimensional poverty data and measurement are key allies in confronting the threat posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Formulating an effective response to this global crisis requires an understanding of the overlapping deprivations faced by people around the world, deprivations that can result in increased vulnerability to COVID-19. The global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) provides clear, immediate evidence of these interlinked deprivations, making interventions more effective, high impact, and durable.

This briefing uses data from the global MPI database for 2020 and covers 103 countries and 5.8 billion people to show at a glance critical facts for the COVID-19 response.

Download OPHI Briefing 53a

Authors: Sabina Alkire, Jakob Dirksen, Ricardo Nogales and Christian Oldiges
Year: 2020

Citation: Alkire, S., Dirksen, J., Nogales, R. and Oldiges, C. (2020). ‘Multidimensional poverty and COVID-19 risk factors: A rapid overview of interlinked deprivations across 5.8 billion people’, OPHI Briefing 53a, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

Multidimensional Poverty and Vulnerability to COVID-19: A Rapid Overview of Disaggregated and Interlinked Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa

OPHI Briefing 54a (PDF, 16 pages)

This Briefing presents a 2020 global MPI update to the 2019 global MPI analyses and results presented in: OPHI Briefing 54, ‘Multidimensional Poverty and Vulnerability to COVID-19: A Rapid Overview of Disaggregated and Interlinked Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa’, OPHI, 2020. 

Included are updated data and results for nine coun­tries, which cover over 35% of both the population and poor persons in the region.

The briefing provides evidence on the situation across 479 subnational regions and 40 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. It maps some simultaneous deprivations that people are already facing so that policy actors can adjust their COVID-19 responses based on differing levels of vulnerability. Maps on the OPHI website cover each of the 479 regions in greater depth.

Download OPHI Briefing 54a

Authors: Sabina Alkire, Jakob Dirksen, Ricardo Nogales and Christian Oldiges
Year: 2020
Citation: Alkire, S., Dirksen, J., Nogales, R. and Oldiges, C. (2020). ‘Multidimensional poverty and vulnerability to COVID-19: A rapid overview of disaggregated and interlinked vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa’, OPHI Briefing 54a, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.

Understanding Poverty in Africa

OPHI Briefing 56 (PDF, 20 pages)

This briefing synthesises information from the 2020 global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) with a focus on Africa. It provides multidimensional poverty data for 48 African countries, covering 1.25 billion people living on the continent using household surveys fielded between 2010 and 2019. In addition, the 2020 global MPI also includes trend data for 37 African countries enabling a focus on how poverty is changing on the African continent.

Download OPHI Briefing 56.
OPHI Briefing 56 is also available in French.

Authors: Ross Jennings and Christian Oldiges
Year: 2020

Citation: Jennings, R. and Oldiges, C. (2020). ‘Understanding Poverty in Africa’, OPHI Briefing 56. Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.

Multidimensional Poverty across Ethnic Groups: Disaggregating the Global MPI

OPHI Briefing 55 (PDF, 12 pages)

It is vital to document inequalities across ethnic groups to inform policies that can enable inclusive poverty reduction measures and prioritise the poorest. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) demand greater disaggregation of indicators in order to make visible the inequalities that exist across social groups. This briefing presents disaggregations of the global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)2 by ethnicity for the 24 countries and 650 million people whose current surveys present figures by ethnic group.

Download OPHI Briefing 55 here.

Download the supplementary Ethnicity Table.

Authors: Sabina Alkire and Fanni Kovesdi.
Year: 2020.

Citation for the briefing: Alkire, S. and Kovesdi, F. (2020). ‘Multidimensional poverty across ethnic groups: Disaggregating the global MPI’, OPHI Briefing 55. Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.

Citation for the Ethnicity Table: Kovesdi, F. and Mitchell, C. (2020). ‘Ethnicity disaggregation of the 2019 global Multidimensional Poverty Index’, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

Multidimensional Poverty and Vulnerability to COVID-19: A Rapid Overview of Disaggregated and Interlinked Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa

OPHI Briefing 54 (PDF, 16 pages)

This briefing provides a rapid assessment of vulnerabilities to COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa according to three indicators from the 2019 global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). It analyses deprivations in nutrition, drinking water and cooking fuel across 467 subnational regions and 40 countries.

Erratum: Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia are missing from Figs 1a and 1b, please see the updated maps of 2019 global MPI data:
Map 1 – Proportion of people at high risk (2019)
Map 2 – Number of people at high risk (2019)

Download OPHI Briefing 54.
OPHI Briefing 54 is also available in French.

Authors: Sabina Alkire, Jakob Dirksen, Ricardo Nogales and Christian Oldiges.
Year: 2020.

Citation: Alkire, S., Dirksen, J., Nogales, R. and Oldiges, C. (2020). ‘Multidimensional Poverty and Vulnerability to COVID-19: A Rapid Overview of Disaggregated and Interlinked Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa’, OPHI Briefing 54, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.

Multidimensional Poverty and COVID-19 Risk Factors: A Rapid Overview of Interlinked Deprivations across 5.7 Billion People

OPHI Briefing 53 (PDF, 8 pages)

Multidimensional poverty data and measurement are key allies in confronting the threat posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Formulating an effective response to this global crisis requires an understanding of the overlapping deprivations faced by people in the developing world, deprivations that can result in increased vulnerability to COVID-19. The global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) provides clear, immediate evidence of these interlinked deprivations, making interventions more effective, high impact, and durable.

This briefing uses the global MPI database for 2019, which covers 101 countries and 5.7 billion people in the developing world, to show at a glance some surprising but critical facts for the COVID-19 response

Download the Briefing here.

Authors: Sabina Alkire, Jakob Dirksen, Ricardo Nogales and Christian Oldiges
Year: 2020

Citation: Alkire, S., Dirksen, J., Nogales, R., and Oldiges, C. (2020). ‘Multidimensional poverty and COVID-19 risk factors: A rapid overview of interlinked deprivations across 5.7 Billion People’, OPHI Briefing 53, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.

The MPI as a Tool for Achieving Poverty Reduction Goals (8 pages)

OPHI Policy Briefing 51 (MPPN Policy Briefing) (PDF)

This Policy Briefing describes the process of creating the Multidimensional Poverty Index of Costa Rica as an official tool for measuring poverty, guiding the allocation of resources, and monitoring and evaluating social programmes.

Author: Andrés Fernández Arauz.
Year: 2019.

OPHI Briefing 51 is also available in SPANISH.

Citation: Fernández Arauz, A. (2019). ‘The MPI as a tool for achieving poverty reduction goals’, OPHI Policy Briefing 51, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

Multidimensional Poverty in Chile: Incorporating the Environment and Social Networks into the MPI

OPHI Briefing 50 (MPPN Policy Briefing) (PDF, 8 pages).

Over the past decade, various countries in Latin America and the world have sought to supplement traditional income-focused measures of poverty with a multidimensional approach. In 2015, Chile’s government introduced an official multidimensional poverty measure, using data from 2013, in which four dimensions were considered: education, health, employment and social security, and housing. After evaluating the situation and the resulting analysis, Chile took on the challenge of expanding its measures of multidimensional poverty to incorporate indicators that also consider the level of family well-being. Particular attention was paid to indicators related to the local environment in which families live and the social networks that are available to them. Nonetheless, identifying those deprivations from the data obtained through household surveys presented conceptualisation and operationalisation challenges. Various stakeholders from civil society and academia were invited by the Ministerial Advisory Committee on the Local Environment and Networks to participate in the development of the measure that incorporates the local environment and household networks. This process also received technical backing from various international organisations and the public sector.

Author: The Ministry of Social Development, Government of Chile.
Year: 2019.

OPHI Briefing 50 is also available in SPANISH.

Citation: The Ministry of Social Development, Government of Chile. (2019). ‘Multidimensional poverty in Chile: Incorporating the environment and social networks into the MPI’, OPHI Briefing 50, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

How to Explain the Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty to the General Public: Workshop for Journalists in Colombia (8 pages)

 OPHI Briefing 52 (MPPN Policy Briefing) (PDF, 8 pages)

In 2011, Colombia made an important change to the way in which poverty is measured. Together with a review of the methodology to measure monetary poverty, the government introduced a new methodology for measuring poverty – the Multidimensional Poverty Index for Colombia (MPI-C). This new scenario generated an important challenge: how to explain the existence of two poverty figures (monetary and multidimensional) to people. DANE, the institution in charge of measuring and disclosing poverty figures using the two methodologies, addressed this challenge by training media editors and reporters at a workshop on multi dimensional poverty entitled ‘the unknown dimension’. Silvia Botello from DANE gives an overview of the workshop.

Author: Silvia Botello
Year: 2020

OPHI Briefing 52 is also available in SPANISH.

Citation: Botello, S. (2020). ‘How to explain the measurement of multidimensional poverty to the general public: Workshop for journalists in Colombia’, OPHI Briefing 52, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.