Category Archives: National MPI Reports

India National Multidimensional Poverty Index 2021: Baseline Report

India MPI 2021 cover

The India National Multidimensional Poverty Index: Baseline Report 2021 presents National, State/Union Territories and district results using data from the 2015/16 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4). The data provides a starting point from which to measure the effectiveness of multi-sectoral policies in poverty reduction and for tracking progress towards target 1.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals.

The next report will analyse the 2019/20 NFHS-5 microdata, in order to identify reductions and trends since 2015/6. The Report has been developed by NITI Aayog in consultation with 12 Line Ministries and in partnership with State governments, OPHI and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

The India National MPI builds on the 10 indicators of the global MPI to add metrics on maternal health and bank account under the dimensions of health and standard of living, respectively. The results and findings of the baseline edition of India’s National Multidimensional Poverty Index are available for policy makers and administrators in States and districts, researchers and scholars, businesses and NGOs, and the wider public, so that many can use precise data to confront poverty.

Citation: NITI Aayog (2021). India National Multidimensional Poverty Index: Baseline Report. NITI Aayog, Government of India, New Delhi.

Download India National Multidimensional Poverty Index: Baseline Report 2021

Multidimensional Poverty in Sri Lanka – Policy Briefing

Sri Lanka MPI 2021 briefing

Multidimensional Poverty in Sri Lanka presents findings from the first official National MPI and Child MPI for Sri Lanka. The Sri Lanka National MPI (NMPI) is the first MPI in the world to directly and fully link the measure of child poverty with national poverty, also known as the ‘drawer approach’. The individual and pioneering Child MPI for children aged 0–4, includes the same indicators as the National MPI, and adds a fourth dimension to cover undernutrition and early childhood development. This policy brief by the Department of Census and Statistics (DCS) in the Ministry of Economic Policies and Plan Implementation, in partnership with UNICEF and OPHI, uses data from data from the Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2019 (HIES 2019). 

Key findings include:

National MPI:

  • Approximately one out of every six (16.0%) people in Sri Lanka are multidimensionally poor.
  • More than half (51.3%) of all people living in estate areas are living in multidimensional poverty.
  • More than eight out of every ten (80.9%) people who are poor live in rural areas.
  • People aged 65 or over are the poorest age group in Sri Lanka, with the highest incidence (17.9%) as well as intensity of poverty and MPI.

Child MPI:

  • More than four out of every ten (42.2%) children under the age of five are multidimensionally poor.
  • One third (33.4%) of children aged 0–4 years old are multidimensionally poor and either underweight or stunted.
  • One sixth (16.4%) of children aged 0–4 years old are multidimensionally poor and deprived in early child development.
  • Nearly half of children 0–11 months (46.6%) and 4 years old (47.5%) are poor, mainly due to undernutrition and not attending pre-school (respectively).
  • There are no significant differences in poverty levels between girls and boys.

Citation: DCS, OPHI and UNICEF (2021). Multidimensional Poverty in Sri Lanka. Department of Census and Statistics (DCS) of the Government of Sri Lanka, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Colombo.

Download Multidimensional Poverty in Sri Lanka Policy Briefing (PDF).
More information on poverty via the Department of Census and Statistics (DCS).


Malawi MPI report 2021

The Malawi Multidimensional Poverty Index report 2021 presents the results of the first national Multidimensional Poverty Index for Malawi. The Malawi MPI has been developed to monitor the key simultaneous disadvantages that affect people living in multidimensional poverty in Malawi, and to identify social progress made towards the Malawi 2063 national vision and target 1.2 of the SDGs.

This report was produced by the National Statistical Office (NSO) in collaboration with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the University of Malawi (Economics Department), the Centre for Social Research, the National Planning Commission and the Ministry of Economic Planning and Development and Public Sector Reforms, with technical support from the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI).

The Malawi MPI is based on data from the Fourth Integrated Household Survey (IHS4) 2016/17. This report offers a baseline for findings on multidimensional poverty and will be revised using data from the IHS5 survey (2019/20) to show changes in the levels and composition of multidimensional poverty.

 Key findings include:

  • 61.7% of Malawi’s population are multidimensionally poor.
  • The intensity of poverty is 54.6%, meaning that nationally poor people experience, on average, more than half of the weighted deprivations.
  • The MPI, which is the product of the incidence and intensity of poverty, is 0.337.
  • The indicators that contribute most to multidimensional poverty in Malawi nationally are literacy and schooling (14.9%), electricity (11.4%), and job diversity (11.3%).
  • Analysis by region shows that the incidence of multidimensional poverty is highest in the Southern region and lowest in the Northern region at 63.7 and 43.7%, respectively.
  • The incidence of multidimensional poverty is highest in rural areas at 70.0% compared to 25.7% in urban areas.

Citation: National Statistical Office (2021). Malawi Multidimensional Poverty Index Report. National Statistical Office, Malawi.

Download Malawi Multidimensional Poverty Index report 2021 (PDF)
Download Malawi Multidimensional Poverty Index leaflet 2021 (PDF)


Nepal MPI 2021

Nepal Multidimensional Poverty Index: Analysis towards action presents updated MPI figures and additional indicators reflecting the relationship between multidimensional poverty and vulnerability towards COVID-19 in Nepal. This report by the Government of Nepal National Planning Commission in partnership with OPHI, UNDP, and UNICEF uses 2014 and 2019 data from the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (NMICS).

The MPI is used to monitor and evaluate multidimensional poverty reduction over time. Nepal uses the MPI to meet its national development plans, SDG targets by 2030 and identify who is most vulnerable to COVID-19.

 Key findings:

  • 3.1 million people left multidimensional poverty between 2014 and 2019.
  • Nepal reduced its incidence of poverty from 30.1% in 2014 to 17.4% in 2019.
  • 22% of children or 2.2 million children are MPI poor. Although children are 35% of the population they constitute 44% of the MPI. Over the five-year period, children in Nepal reduced their MPI faster than adults.
  • The MPI poor are more deprived of COVID-19 related indicators overcrowding (36%), access to handwashing  facilities (65.2%), and internet (80%) compared to the general population (17.5%, 38.2%, 47.2% respectively).
  • In 2019, 32.7% of people lived in rural areas, yet 52.5% of the MPI poor lived in rural areas.

Citation: CBS and OPHI (2021). Nepal Multidimensional Poverty Index: Analysis towards action. Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) of the Government of Nepal, and Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI). Kathmandu.

Download Nepal MPI report 2021 (PDF)

Paraguay MPI 2021

This report (in Spanish) presents the findings of the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) of Paraguay, which aims to inform and guide poverty reduction strategies. The Paraguayan MPI was developed as part of a collaboration led by the National Statistics Institute (INE) of Paraguay, with technical support from OPHI.

This report is based on the national Permanent Survey of Households, ‘la Encuesta Permanente de Hogares (EPH)’, which is updated regularly. The report of the MPI uses data from the fourth quarter of each year from 2017 to 2020 to scrutinize poverty levels and trends.  A person is considered multidimensionally poor if they are deprived in 26% of the 15 weighted indicators grouped under the four dimensions: ‘Employment and social security’, ‘Housing and public services’, ‘Health and environment’, and ‘Education’.

Key findings include:

  • In 2020, 24.9% of the population of Paraguay were living in multidimensional poverty.
  • In 2020, the intensity of poverty, or average share of deprivations experienced among the multidimensionally poor population, was 37.7.%.
  • In 2016, the incidence of the population who were multidimensionally poor was 34.3%, falling to 24.9% in 2020.
  • in 2020 the incidence of multidimensional poverty in rural areas (44.6%) was higher than in urban areas (13.3%).

Download the ‘Índice de pobreza multidimensional (IPM) Paraguay 2021’

Namibia Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) Report 2021

This report presents the findings of the 2021 Namibian Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) which aims to inform and guide poverty reduction strategies in Namibia. The Namibian MPI was developed as part of a collaboration led by the Namibia Statistics Agency (NSA), with UNICEF, UNDP, UNFPA, and OPHI. 

This report is based on the Namibian Household Income and Expenditure Survey (NHIES 2015/16).  If a person is deprived in 30% of 11 weighted indicators grouped under the three dimensions of ‘Education’, ‘Health’ and ‘Living Standards’, they are considered multidimensionally poor.

Key findings based on 2015/2016 data include:

  • More than 43.3 percent of Namibia’s population live in multidimensional poverty.
  • The average intensity of poverty is 44.0%, meaning that poor people in Namibia experience, on average, 44.0% of the weighted deprivations.
  • The Namibian Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), which is the product of incidence and intensity, is 0.191.
  • Rural areas were found to be poorer than urban areas, reported at 59.3% and 25.3%, respectively.  
  • Across the fourteen administrative regions of Namibia, the incidence of multidimensional poverty was highest in Kavango West (79.6 %), Kavango East (70.0 %) and Kunene (64.1 %).
  • The incidence of multidimensional poverty is higher among female-headed households (with a rate of 46%), than male-headed households (with a rate of 41%).
  • In terms of languages, the highest incidence of multidimensional poverty was reported amongst the population whose main language was Khoisan (93%), followed by Rukavango (68%) and Zambezi (54%). This is in stark contrast to populations whose main spoken languages were English and German (each with 3%).
  • The incidence of multidimensional poverty is highest for households that have 16 or more members, at 72.8% compared to 33.4% for a household with less than 6 members.
  • The youngest children in Namibia are the poorest with the highest incidence of poverty reported among children aged 1–4 years (56%), followed by 5–9 years (50%) and 10–14 years (48%).

Download the report Namibia Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) Report 2021

Multidimensional Poverty in Angola 2020

This report presents the findings of the Multidimensional Poverty Index of Angola (A-MPI) to guide more informed decisions on issues related to poverty eradication. The report is the product of a long and strategic partnership between the National Statistics Institute (INE), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI). The Angolan MPI responds to one of the priority actions included in Angola’s National Development Plan (PDN) 2018–2022. Resulting from in-depth technical consultations, the Angolan MPI is made up four essential dimensions: health, education, quality of life and employment.

The report is based on the 2015–2016 Multiple Health Indicators Survey (IIMS) and considers people living with at least 30% of the deprivations analyzed to be multidimensionally poor.

Key findings based on the 2015–2016 data include:

  • 54% of Angolans are multidimensionally poor.
  • Poverty is more pronounced among children under the age of 10.
  • In urban areas, about 1 in 3 people (35% of the population) is multidimensionally poor, while in rural areas this figure rises to 9 in 10 people (88% of the population).
  • In Luanda, 23.7% of the population is multidimensionally poor, but in Bié, Cunene, Lunda Norte, Moxico, Cuando Cubango, Uíge, Huíla, Cuanza Sul and Huambo, multidimensional poverty affects at least 70% of the province’s population.

Download the report ‘Multidimensional Poverty in Angola 2020’.

Multidimensional Poverty – Ghana

This report presents the findings of the national Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for Ghana. The Ghana MPI was developed by the Ghana Statistical Services with support from the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the MPI National Steering Committee, and the University of Cape Coast. Technical support was provided by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) at the University of Oxford.

Ghana now joins several countries from across Africa in using an official MPI to track and measure multidimensional poverty. The Ghana MPI tracks twelve indicators relating to three dimensions: Living Standards, Education and Health. The report uses data from the seventh round of the Ghana Living Standards Survey conducted between 2016/2017 survey periods. The report also employed harmonised datasets from the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys conducted in 2011 and 2018 for trend analyses.

The MPI provides a tool to coordinate the efforts of government stakeholders towards the social progress of individuals and households in line with meeting the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Ghana. With a decade remaining to achieve the SDGs, this report is timely and will feed into public policy formulation and retooling to address emerging issues. The figures will be updated frequently as new data become available.

Key findings of the report:

  • The incidence of poverty (H) in Ghana was 45.6%, while the average intensity (A) was 51.7%. The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), which is the product of H and A, was 0.236.
  • In Ghana, more people are living in multidimensional poverty (45.6%) than monetary poverty (23.4%), but 19.3% of the population were experiencing both monetary and multidimensional poverty.
  • The report indicates that 64.6% of rural populations in Ghana were experiencing multidimensional poverty, compared with 27.0% of urban populations. The Northern Region of Ghana had the highest proportion of multidimensionally poor people at 80%.
  • The indicators in which the most people are poor and deprived are sanitation (44.1% of the population) and health insurance (40.1%).
  • Between the survey years 2011 and 2018, the MPI, incidence, and intensity all saw statistically significant reductions, with particularly large improvements in electricity and cooking fuel.

Download Ghana MPI report.

Andhra Pradesh Multidimensional Poverty Index report 2017

This short report is based on the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) in collaboration with the Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

The report contains well-designed infographics presenting the MPI constructed especially for Andhra Pradesh. The MPI is based on survey conducted in 2016–17 using an effective sample of 12,325 households and 43,664 household members across all districts in the State.

Citation: PD GAP (2017). Andra Pradesh Multidimensional Poverty Index Report 2017. Planning Department of Government of Andra Pradesh, India.

Download the Andra Pradesh MPI report 2017