Category Archives: Briefing Document

Multidimensional Poverty and Vulnerability to COVID-19: A Rapid Overview of Disaggregated and Interlinked Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa

OPHI Briefing 54 (PDF, 16 pages)

This briefing provides a rapid assessment of vulnerabilities to COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa according to three indicators from the 2019 global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). It analyses deprivations in nutrition, drinking water and cooking fuel across 467 subnational regions and 40 countries.

Download the briefing here.

Authors: Sabina Alkire, Jakob Dirksen, Ricardo Nogales and Christian Oldiges.
Year: 2020.

Citation: Alkire, S., Dirksen, J., Nogales, R. and Oldiges, C. (2020). ‘Multidimensional Poverty and Vulnerability to COVID-19: A Rapid Overview of Disaggregated and Interlinked Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa’, OPHI Briefing 54, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.

Multidimensional Poverty and COVID-19 Risk Factors: A Rapid Overview of Interlinked Deprivations across 5.7 Billion People

OPHI Briefing 53 (PDF, 8 pages)

Multidimensional poverty data and measurement are key allies in confronting the threat posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Formulating an effective response to this global crisis requires an understanding of the overlapping deprivations faced by people in the developing world, deprivations that can result in increased vulnerability to COVID-19. The global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) provides clear, immediate evidence of these interlinked deprivations, making interventions more effective, high impact, and durable.

This briefing uses the global MPI database for 2019, which covers 101 countries and 5.7 billion people in the developing world, to show at a glance some surprising but critical facts for the COVID-19 response

Download the Briefing here.

Authors: Sabina Alkire, Jakob Dirksen, Ricardo Nogales and Christian Oldiges
Year: 2020

Citation: Alkire, S., Dirksen, J., Nogales, R., and Oldiges, C. (2020). ‘Multidimensional poverty and COVID-19 risk factors: A rapid overview of interlinked deprivations across 5.7 Billion People’, OPHI Briefing 53, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.

The MPI as a Tool for Achieving Poverty Reduction Goals (8 pages)

OPHI Policy Briefing 51 (PDF)

This Policy Briefing describes the process of creating the Multidimensional Poverty Index of Costa Rica as an official tool for measuring poverty, guiding the allocation of resources, and monitoring and evaluating social programmes.

Author: Andrés Fernández Arauz
Year: 2019

This Briefing is also available in SPANISH

Citation: Fernández Arauz, A. (2019). ‘The MPI as a Tool for Achieving Poverty Reduction Goals’, OPHI Policy Briefing 51, university of Oxford.

 

Multidimensional Poverty in Chile: Incorporating the Environment and Social Networks into the MPI

OPHI Briefing 50 in English. (PDF, 8 pages).

This Briefing is also available in Spanish.

Over the past decade, various countries in Latin America and the world have sought to supplement traditional income-focused measures of poverty with a multidimensional approach. In 2015, Chile’s government introduced an official multidimensional poverty measure, using data from 2013, in which four dimensions were considered: education, health, employment and social security, and housing. After evaluating the situation and the resulting analysis, Chile took on the challenge of expanding its measures of multidimensional poverty to incorporate indicators that also consider the level of family well-being. Particular attention was paid to indicators related to the local environment in which families live and the social networks that are available to them. Nonetheless, identifying those deprivations from the data obtained through household surveys presented conceptualisation and operationalisation challenges. Various stakeholders from civil society and academia were invited by the Ministerial Advisory Committee on the Local Environment and Networks to participate in the development of the measure that incorporates the local environment and household networks. This process also received technical backing from various international organisations and the public sector.

Author: The Ministry of Social Development, Government of Chile
Language: English
Year: 2019
Citation: The Ministry of Social Development, Government of Chile. (2019). ‘Multidimensional Poverty in Chile: Incorporating the Environment and Social Networks into the MPI’, OPHI Briefing 50, University of Oxford.

How to Explain the Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty to the General Public: Workshop for Journalists in Colombia (8 pages)

 OPHI Briefing 52 (in English) (PDF, 8 pages)

In 2011, Colombia made an important change to the way in which poverty is measured. Together with a review of the methodology to measure monetary poverty, the government introduced a new methodology for measuring poverty – the Multidimensional Poverty Index for Colombia (MPI-C). This new scenario generated an important challenge: how to explain the existence of two poverty figures (monetary and multidimensional) to people. DANE, the institution in charge of measuring and disclosing poverty figures using the two methodologies, addressed this challenge by training media editors and reporters at a workshop on multi dimensional poverty entitled ‘the unknown dimension’. Silvia Botello from DANE gives an overview of the workshop.

Author: Silvia Botello
Year: 2020

Also available in SPANISH

Citation: Botello, S. (2020). ‘How to Explain the Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty to the General Public: Workshop for Journalists in Colombia’, OPHI Briefing 52 (in English), University of Oxford.

Defining MPI Dimensions through Participation: The Case of El Salvador

OPHI Briefing 49 (pdf, 4pp)

How to choose dimensions and indicators that better target public policies? This question was asked in El Salvador in the early stages of creating the MPI-ES. Several paths were tested. There were many suggestions for dimensions and indicators. But, understanding that poverty is more than income level, which dimensional deprivations are felt most by the poor population? To answer this question, El Salvador conducted a participatory process that was instrumental in defining the dimensions and indicators of the final index.

Author: Carolina Moreno

Year: 2017

Also available in Spanish.

Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2017 (2 pages)

OPHI Policy Briefing 48 (pdf)

The global MPI is a new generation of multidimensional measures that supports key priorities in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). High-resolution poverty diagnostics are needed to leave no one behind. The global MPI is disaggregated by children, disability status, sub-national regions and rural/urban areas. Linked indices of destitution and severe poverty highlight the very poorest. The SDGs call for analyses of interlinkages across indicators, and the global MPI is built upon household-level multidimensional poverty profiles. The SDGs advocate integrated multisectoral policies. The global MPI unfolds to show the composition of poverty by indicator nationally, and in every disaggregated group.

Authors: Sabina Alkire and Gisela Robles

Year: 2017

Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2017 (16 pages)

OPHI Policy Briefing 47 (pdf)

The 2017 global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) provides a headline estimation of poverty and its composition for 103 countries across the world. The global MPI measures the nature and intensity of poverty, based on the profile of overlapping deprivations each poor person experiences. It aggregates these into meaningful indexes that can be used to inform targeting and resource allocation and to design policies that tackle the interlinked dimensions of poverty together.

Authors: Sabina Alkire and Gisela Robles

Year: 2017

Children’s Multidimensional Poverty: disaggregating the global MPI (8 pages)

Brief46_thumbOPHI Briefing 46 (PDF)

With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the international community affirmed the importance of eradicating child poverty, identifying within Goal 1 the need to reduce the proportion of men, women and children living in multidimensional poverty. The international definition of a child, also used here, is anyone less than 18 years of age.

Authors: Sabina Alkire, Christoph Jindra, Gisela Robles, Ana Vaz
Year:2017

Multidimensional Poverty Index – Summer 2017: Brief Methodological Note and Results

OPHI Briefing (MPI Methodological Note) 44 (pdf)

The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) Summer 2017 updates use the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. This brief methodological note presents the Summer 2017 MPI updates, and releases the tables with the full results: national MPI, destitution and vulnerability results, rural, urban, subnational region, changes over time, and complete estimations, as well as complementary data, dimensional breakdowns, and confidence intervals. Destitution data are now available for 102 countries. It first explains the main updates in the Summer 2017 MPI, following the guidelines for updates presented in the 2014 Methodological Note (Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). It uses the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in previous methodological notes (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011; Alkire, Conconi and Roche 2013; Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b; Alkire and Robles 2015; Alkire, Jindra, Robles and Vaz 2016). Then it briefly describes the methodological assumptions considered for the estimation of each dataset. The results of these estimations are presented in the form of 7 main tables, 103 country briefings and the interactive databank, all available on OPHI’s website (www.ophi.org.uk).

Authors: Sabina Alkire and Gisela Robles

Year: 2017