This Policy Briefing describes the process of creating the Multidimensional Poverty Index of Costa Rica as an official tool for measuring poverty, guiding the allocation of resources, and monitoring and evaluating social programmes.
Over the past decade, various countries in Latin America and the world have sought to supplement traditional income-focused measures of poverty with a multidimensional approach. In 2015, Chile’s government introduced an official multidimensional poverty measure, using data from 2013, in which four dimensions were considered: education, health, employment and social security, and housing. After evaluating the situation and the resulting analysis, Chile took on the challenge of expanding its measures of multidimensional poverty to incorporate indicators that also consider the level of family well-being. Particular attention was paid to indicators related to the local environment in which families live and the social networks that are available to them. Nonetheless, identifying those deprivations from the data obtained through household surveys presented conceptualisation and operationalisation challenges. Various stakeholders from civil society and academia were invited by the Ministerial Advisory Committee on the Local Environment and Networks to participate in the development of the measure that incorporates the local environment and household networks. This process also received technical backing from various international organisations and the public sector.
Author: The Ministry of Social Development, Government of Chile Language: English Year: 2019 Citation: The Ministry of Social Development, Government of Chile. (2019). ‘Multidimensional Poverty in Chile: Incorporating the Environment and Social Networks into the MPI’, OPHI Briefing 50, University of Oxford.
In 2011, Colombia made an important change to the way in which poverty is measured. Together with a review of the methodology to measure monetary poverty, the government introduced a new methodology for measuring poverty – the Multidimensional Poverty Index for Colombia (MPI-C). This new scenario generated an important challenge: how to explain the existence of two poverty figures (monetary and multidimensional) to people. DANE, the institution in charge of measuring and disclosing poverty figures using the two methodologies, addressed this challenge by training media editors and reporters at a workshop on multi dimensional poverty entitled ‘the unknown dimension’. Silvia Botello from DANE gives an overview of the workshop.
Citation: Botello, S. (2020). ‘How to Explain the Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty to the General Public: Workshop for Journalists in Colombia’, OPHI Briefing 52 (in English), University of Oxford.
How to choose dimensions and indicators that better target public policies? This question was asked in El Salvador in the early stages of creating the MPI-ES. Several paths were tested. There were many suggestions for dimensions and indicators. But, understanding that poverty is more than income level, which dimensional deprivations are felt most by the poor population? To answer this question, El Salvador conducted a participatory process that was instrumental in defining the dimensions and indicators of the final index.
The global MPI is a new generation of multidimensional measures that supports key priorities in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). High-resolution poverty diagnostics are needed to leave no one behind. The global MPI is disaggregated by children, disability status, sub-national regions and rural/urban areas. Linked indices of destitution and severe poverty highlight the very poorest. The SDGs call for analyses of interlinkages across indicators, and the global MPI is built upon household-level multidimensional poverty profiles. The SDGs advocate integrated multisectoral policies. The global MPI unfolds to show the composition of poverty by indicator nationally, and in every disaggregated group.
The 2017 global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) provides a headline estimation of poverty and its composition for 103 countries across the world. The global MPI measures the nature and intensity of poverty, based on the profile of overlapping deprivations each poor person experiences. It aggregates these into meaningful indexes that can be used to inform targeting and resource allocation and to design policies that tackle the interlinked dimensions of poverty together.
With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the international community affirmed the importance of eradicating child poverty, identifying within Goal 1 the need to reduce the proportion of men, women and children living in multidimensional poverty. The international definition of a child, also used here, is anyone less than 18 years of age.
Authors: Sabina Alkire, Christoph Jindra, Gisela Robles, Ana Vaz Year:2017
The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) Summer 2017 updates use the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. This brief methodological note presents the Summer 2017 MPI updates, and releases the tables with the full results: national MPI, destitution and vulnerability results, rural, urban, subnational region, changes over time, and complete estimations, as well as complementary data, dimensional breakdowns, and confidence intervals. Destitution data are now available for 102 countries. It first explains the main updates in the Summer 2017 MPI, following the guidelines for updates presented in the 2014 Methodological Note (Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). It uses the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in previous methodological notes (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011; Alkire, Conconi and Roche 2013; Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b; Alkire and Robles 2015; Alkire, Jindra, Robles and Vaz 2016). Then it briefly describes the methodological assumptions considered for the estimation of each dataset. The results of these estimations are presented in the form of 7 main tables, 103 country briefings and the interactive databank, all available on OPHI’s website (www.ophi.org.uk).
Colombia launched its official multidimensional poverty measure in 2011 – the Colombian Multidimensional Poverty Index (C-MPI). The index was first used to establish specific policy goals for multidimensional poverty reduction (headcount ratio) as well as sector-specific targets within the National Development Plan – a mandatory and binding strategy that all incoming administrations must have approved by Congress at the beginning of their mandate.
Authors: Diego Zavaleta, Roberto Angulo Year: 2017
In the early 2000s, Mexico launched a process of institution-building for its social development policy and the formulation of an official poverty measure, which led to the creation of the National Council for the Evaluation of Social Development Policy (CONEVAL) and the establishment of the first official multidimensional poverty measure in the world. Today, CONEVAL generates official multidimensional poverty estimates with representative data every two years at the state level and every five at the municipal level.
A national Multidimensional Poverty Index is a country-specific poverty measure tailored to each country’s unique situation. Such measures generally take the dimensions of health, education and living standards as their starting point, and supplement with different dimensions measured by locally appropriate indicators.