Category Archives: Briefing Document

How to Explain the Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty to the General Public: Workshop for Journalists in Colombia

 OPHI Briefing 52 (in English) (pdf 6 pages)

In 2011, Colombia made an important change to the way in which poverty is measured. Together with a review of the methodology to measure monetary poverty, the government introduced a new methodology for measuring poverty – the Multidimensional Poverty Index for Colombia (MPI-C). This new scenario generated an important challenge: how to explain the existence of two poverty figures (monetary and multidimensional) to people. DANE, the institution in charge of measuring and disclosing poverty figures using the two methodologies, addressed this challenge by training media editors and reporters at a workshop on multi dimensional poverty entitled ‘the unknown dimension’. Silvia Botello from DANE gives an overview of the workshop.

Author: Silvia Botello

Year: 2019

Also available in Spanish.

Citation: Botello, S. (2019). ‘How to Explain the Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty to the General Public: Workshop for Journalists in Colombia’, OPHI Briefing 52 (in English), University of Oxford.

El IPM para alcanzar las metas de reducción de la pobreza

 OPHI Briefing 51 (pdf 6 pages)

En julio de 2016, se emitió en Costa Rica la Directriz Presidencial N°045-MP en que se instó a todos los funcionarios del sector social a utilizar el Índice de Pobreza Multidimensional nacional como una herramienta oficial de medición, de información para asignación de recursos, de seguimiento y evaluación de los programas sociales. Previo al trabajo de cada institución para comenzar a planificar sus presupuestos considerando el IPM-CR, se realizó un ejercicio de simulación del posible impacto que tendría esta labor sobre la reducción de la pobreza multidimensional, cuyos resultados son el interés de este artículo. Este trabajo teórico fue realizado gracias a la alianza público privada entre el Gobierno de Costa Rica y la Asociación Horizonte Positivo, quienes se apoyaron en la firma consultora Cocobolo para el análisis estadístico de los datos.

Author: Andrés Fernández Arauz
Language: Spanish
Year: 2019
Citation: Fernández Arauz, A. (2019). ‘El IPM para alcanzar las metas de reducción de la pobreza’, OPHI Briefing 51, University of Oxford.

Pobreza multidimensional en Chile: Incorporación de Entorno y Redes

OPHI Briefing 50 (pdf 8 pages)

En el año 2015, el gobierno de Chile presentó la medida oficial de pobreza, utilizando datos del 2013, la cual consideraba cuatro dimensiones: Educación, Salud, Trabajo y Seguridad Social, y Vivienda. Luego de valorar esta experiencia y el diagnóstico resultante, Chile asumió el desafío de ampliar la medida multidimensional con la incorporación de indicadores que también son relevantes para el nivel de bienestar de las familias, en particular aquellos relacionados con el entorno en que habitan y las redes sociales de las que disponen los hogares. ¿Cómo enfrentar este desafío?

Author: Ministry of Social Development, Government of Chile

Language: Spanish

Year: 2018

Citation: Ministerio de Desarrollo Social de Chile. (2018). ‘Pobreza multidimensional en Chile: Incorporación de Entorno y Redes’, OPHI Briefing 50, University of Oxford.

Defining MPI Dimensions through Participation: The Case of El Salvador

OPHI Briefing 49 (pdf, 4pp)

How to choose dimensions and indicators that better target public policies? This question was asked in El Salvador in the early stages of creating the MPI-ES. Several paths were tested. There were many suggestions for dimensions and indicators. But, understanding that poverty is more than income level, which dimensional deprivations are felt most by the poor population? To answer this question, El Salvador conducted a participatory process that was instrumental in defining the dimensions and indicators of the final index.

Author: Carolina Moreno

Year: 2017

Also available in Spanish.

Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2017 (2 page briefing)

OPHI Briefing 48 (pdf)

The global MPI is a new generation of multidimensional measures that supports key priorities in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). High-resolution poverty diagnostics are needed to leave no one behind. The global MPI is disaggregated by children, disability status, sub-national regions and rural/urban areas. Linked indices of destitution and severe poverty highlight the very poorest. The SDGs call for analyses of interlinkages across indicators, and the global MPI is built upon household-level multidimensional poverty profiles. The SDGs advocate integrated multisectoral policies. The global MPI unfolds to show the composition of poverty by indicator nationally, and in every disaggregated group.

Authors: Sabina Alkire and Gisela Robles

Year: 2017

Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2017 (16 page briefing)

OPHI Briefing 47 (pdf)

The 2017 global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) provides a headline estimation of poverty and its composition for 103 countries across the world. The global MPI measures the nature and intensity of poverty, based on the profile of overlapping deprivations each poor person experiences. It aggregates these into meaningful indexes that can be used to inform targeting and resource allocation and to design policies that tackle the interlinked dimensions of poverty together.

Authors: Sabina Alkire and Gisela Robles

Year: 2017

Children’s Multidimensional Poverty: disaggregating the global MPI, Briefing 46

Brief46_thumbOPHI Briefing 46

With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the international community affirmed the importance of eradicating child poverty, identifying within Goal 1 the need to reduce the proportion of men, women and children living in multidimensional poverty. The international definition of a child, also used here, is anyone less than 18 years of age.

Authors: Sabina Alkire, Christoph Jindra, Gisela Robles, Ana Vaz

Year: 2017

Multidimensional Poverty Index – Summer 2017: Brief Methodological Note and Results

MPI Briefing 44 (pdf)

The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) Summer 2017 updates use the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. This brief methodological note presents the Summer 2017 MPI updates, and releases the tables with the full results: national MPI, destitution and vulnerability results, rural, urban, subnational region, changes over time, and complete estimations, as well as complementary data, dimensional breakdowns, and confidence intervals. Destitution data are now available for 102 countries. It first explains the main updates in the Summer 2017 MPI, following the guidelines for updates presented in the 2014 Methodological Note (Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). It uses the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in previous methodological notes (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011; Alkire, Conconi and Roche 2013; Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b; Alkire and Robles 2015; Alkire, Jindra, Robles and Vaz 2016). Then it briefly describes the methodological assumptions considered for the estimation of each dataset. The results of these estimations are presented in the form of 7 main tables, 103 country briefings and the interactive databank, all available on OPHI’s website (

Authors: Sabina Alkire and Gisela Robles

Year: 2017

National Roundtable & Dashboard for Poverty Reduction in Colombia

Brief45_thumbOPHI Briefing 45

Colombia launched its official multidimensional poverty measure in 2011 – the Colombian Multidimensional Poverty Index (C-MPI).[1]  The index was first used to establish specific policy goals for multidimensional poverty reduction (headcount ratio) as well as sector-specific targets within the National Development Plan – a mandatory and binding strategy that all incoming administrations must have approved by Congress at the beginning of their mandate.

Authors: Diego Zavaleta,  Roberto Angulo

Year: 2017

CONEVAL: institution-building for multidimensional poverty measurement in Mexico

OPHI briefing 44 OPHI briefing 44

In the early 2000s, Mexico launched a process of institution-building for its social development policy and the formulation of an official poverty measure, which led to the creation of the National Council for the Evaluation of Social Development Policy (CONEVAL) and the establishment of the first official multidimensional poverty measure in the world. Today, CONEVAL generates official multidimensional poverty estimates with representative data every two years at the state level and every five at the municipal level.

Authors: Diego Zavaleta, Carolina Moreno

Year: 2017