Category Archives: Publications

Multidimensional Poverty Index Report 2019: Seychelles

This report presents the findings of the national MPI for Seychelles. The Seychelles MPI was developed by the Poverty Alleviation Department and the National Bureau of Statistics of Seychelles with technical support from the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI). As a high-income country, and a Small Island Developing State, the challenges faced by Seychelles in poverty reduction are different from other contexts. Seychelles’ MPI, which includes innovative indicators on obesity, substance abuse and crime, can help policymakers identify those being left behind and target their programmes more effectively.

Key findings include:

  • In the third quarter of 2019, the poverty incidence (H) was 11.88%, and the average intensity (A) was 33.26%. The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), which is the product of H and A (H*A) was 0.040.
  • Those living in the largest households may be more likely to experience multidimensional poverty (with a headcount ratio of 31.15%), than those living in the smallest households (with a headcount ratio of 4.89%).
  • Multidimensional poverty is more prevalent among the unemployed (with a headcount ratio of 57.35%), than among those who are employed and those who are outside the labour force. 
  • The lower the education level (no schooling), the higher the headcount ratio (34.58%). The same pattern can be observed in the MPI, whereby those with no schooling, has the highest MPI (0.115), and the MPI decreases as the education level increases.

Read more and download the report here.

Multidimensional Poverty and Vulnerability to COVID-19: A Rapid Overview of Disaggregated and Interlinked Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa

OPHI Briefing 54 (PDF, 16 pages)

This briefing provides a rapid assessment of vulnerabilities to COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa according to three indicators from the 2019 global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). It analyses deprivations in nutrition, drinking water and cooking fuel across 467 subnational regions and 40 countries.

Download the briefing here.

Authors: Sabina Alkire, Jakob Dirksen, Ricardo Nogales and Christian Oldiges.
Year: 2020.

Citation: Alkire, S., Dirksen, J., Nogales, R. and Oldiges, C. (2020). ‘Multidimensional Poverty and Vulnerability to COVID-19: A Rapid Overview of Disaggregated and Interlinked Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa’, OPHI Briefing 54, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.

Multidimensional Poverty in Chhattisgarh: A Measure for Action

This briefing provides an overview of multidimensional poverty in the state of Chhattisgarh in India. According to the global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), Chhattisgarh had a dramatic reduction in multidimensional poverty. Ongoing policy investments will continue that remarkable trend.

  • From 2005/6 to 2015/16, the multidimensional poverty rate was cut from 70% to 37%, bringing 7 million people out of poverty.
  • The MPI for Chhattisgarh was more than halved (from 0.355 to 0.153) during that decade.
  • In 2005/6 it was the fifth poorest state; in 2015/16 it had improved to seventh poorest.
  • Huge strides were made in reducing undernutrition, inadequate sanitation, solid cooking fuel, housing materials, and assets. All 10 MPI indicators had significant reductions.
  • The changes were pro-poorest. Those living in rural areas, children, and members of Scheduled Tribes are the poorest groups, and all these groups reduced MPI the fastest. They are not being left behind but are catching up.
  • Yet in 2015/16, 37% of people – 11 million – were still MPI poor, and 93% of these live in rural areas and 5.1 million were members of Scheduled Tribes. One quarter of poor people are children under 10 years of age.
  • District-level poverty varies. The poorest districts are Bastar, Narayanpur, and Dakshin Bastar Dantewada.
  • Ending multidimensional poverty requires integrated investments in nutrition (especially for children), improved housing materials, clean energy, and adequate sanitation.

Download the briefing here.

Multidimensional Poverty and COVID-19 Risk Factors: A Rapid Overview of Interlinked Deprivations across 5.7 Billion People

OPHI Briefing 53 (PDF, 8 pages)

Multidimensional poverty data and measurement are key allies in confronting the threat posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Formulating an effective response to this global crisis requires an understanding of the overlapping deprivations faced by people in the developing world, deprivations that can result in increased vulnerability to COVID-19. The global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) provides clear, immediate evidence of these interlinked deprivations, making interventions more effective, high impact, and durable.

This briefing uses the global MPI database for 2019, which covers 101 countries and 5.7 billion people in the developing world, to show at a glance some surprising but critical facts for the COVID-19 response

Download the Briefing here.

Authors: Sabina Alkire, Jakob Dirksen, Ricardo Nogales and Christian Oldiges
Year: 2020

Citation: Alkire, S., Dirksen, J., Nogales, R., and Oldiges, C. (2020). ‘Multidimensional poverty and COVID-19 risk factors: A rapid overview of interlinked deprivations across 5.7 Billion People’, OPHI Briefing 53, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.

MPI Methodological Note 05 (OPHI Briefing 05)

Multidimensional Poverty Index 2011: Brief Methodological Note

This note i) introduces the methodology used to construct the MPI 2011, ii) shares the main updates that have taken place since 2011, and iii) presents initial robustness results. The 2011 MPI uses the same dimensions, indicators, cutoffs, and weights in as in 2010, and the functional form has not changed. The construction of the MPI is explained in a non-technical fashion in Part 1 of this note. Part 2 outlines the updates to the MPI and the innovative analyses conducted this year. The updates are as follows: this year the MPI has been constructed for five additional countries. A new MPI has been released drawing on updated data for 20 countries. Innovative analyses include decomposition by sub-national region, time series comparisons, the calculation of standard errors, and the construction of MPI-related environmental indicators. The methodologies used to generate the tables on the MPI and the country briefs and maps on OPHI’s website, as well as the results published in the 2011 Human Development Report, are presented in this note. The tables are presented as appendices.

Citation: Alkire, S., Roche, J.M., Santos, M.E., Seth, S. (2011). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index 2011: Brief methodological note’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 05 (OPHI Briefing 05), Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

This paper is published also as OPHI Briefing 05.

MPI Methodological Note 12 (OPHI Briefing 12)

Multidimensional Poverty Index 2013: Brief Methodological Note and Results

The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2013 uses the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the same functional form as in previous years. The main innovation this year consists in updating the estimations for a series of countries and providing further possibilities for analysis over time. This brief methodological note outlines specific changes and clarifications concerning the MPI 2013 estimations, and presents the tables with the full results. It first explains the main updates in the MPI 2013 as well as the policies that will govern the MPI updates from 2013. It summarizes the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in other documents (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011). Then it explains the DHS nutritional subsamples and treatment for analysis over time. Finally, brief guidelines on how to undertake accurate analysis of changes over time are presented. The methodologies used to generate the tables on the MPI and the 104 country briefings and interactive maps available on OPHI’s website, as well as the results published in the 2013 Human Development Report, are presented in this note. The tables are presented as appendices and are available for download as Excel files.

Citation: Alkire, S., Conconi, A. and Roche, J.M. (2013). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index 2013: Brief Methodological Note and Results’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 12 (OPHI Briefing 12), Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

This paper is published also as OPHI Briefing 12.

MPI Methodological Note 19 (OPHI Briefing 19)

Multidimensional Poverty Index 2014: Brief Methodological Note and Results

The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2014 uses the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. The main innovations this year consist in: updating the estimations for a larger series of countries than any previous year, providing further analysis over time, as well as a new measure of destitution, and new measures of inequality among the poor and across subnational regions. This brief methodological note presents the MPI 2014 measures, and the tables with the full results. It first explains the main updates in the MPI 2014, following the guidelines for updates presented in the 2013 Methodological Note (Alkire, Conconi and Roche 2013). It summarizes the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in other documents (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011). Then it explains the new measure of destitution, which uses the same dimensions, indicators and weights, but more extreme deprivation cutoffs. Finally, a brief description of the index on inequality among the poor is presented. The methodologies used to generate the tables on the MPI and the 108 country briefings and interactive maps available on OPHI’s website, as well as the results to be published in the 2014 Human Development Report, are presented in this note. The tables are presented as appendices and are available for download as Excel files.

Citation: Alkire, S., Conconi, A. and Seth, S. (2014). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index 2014: Brief methodological note and results’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 19 (OPHI Briefing 19), Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

This paper is also published as OPHI Briefing 19.

MPI Methodological Note 31 (OPHI Briefing 31)

Multidimensional Poverty Index – 2015: Brief Methodological Note and Results

The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) (released June 2015, henceforth MPI 2015) uses the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. The main innovations in 2015 consisted in: updating the estimations for a larger series of countries than any previous year, providing further disaggregation of the estimations of MPI, destitution and inequality among the poor to regional level, providing the standard errors and confidence intervals of MPI and the headcount ratio (H), and providing a list of previous estimations. This brief methodological note presents the 2015 MPI updates, and the tables with the full results. It first explains the main updates in the 2015 MPI, following the guidelines for updates presented in the 2014 Methodological Note (Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). It summarizes the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in previous methodological notes (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011; Alkire, Conconi and Roche 2013; Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). Then it briefly describes the methodological assumptions considered for the estimation of each dataset. The results of such estimation are presented in the form of 6 main tables, 101 country briefings and the interactive Databank, all available on OPHI’s website.

Citation: Alkire, S. and Robles, G. (2015). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index – 2015: Brief methodological note and results’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 31 (OPHI Briefing 31), Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

This paper is also published as OPHI Briefing 31.

MPI Methodological Note 36 (OPHI Briefing 36)

Multidimensional Poverty Index – Winter 2015/16: Brief Methodological Note and Results

The Winter Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2015/16 updates (released December 2015, henceforth MPI 2015/16) use the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. The main MPI updates are released in summer; Winter MPI Updates provide the opportunity to share new estimations for any databases that have been processed. This brief methodological note presents the Winter 2015/16 MPI updates, and releases the tables with the full results: national MPI, destitution and vulnerability results, rural, urban, subnational region, changes over time, and complete estimations, as well as complementary data, dimensional breakdowns, and confidence intervals. Destitution data are now available for 100 countries. It first explains the main updates in the 2015/16 MPI, following the guidelines for updates presented in the 2014 Methodological Note (Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). It uses the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in previous methodological notes (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011; Alkire, Conconi and Roche 2013; Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). Then it briefly describes the methodological assumptions considered for the estimation of each dataset. The results of such estimations are presented in the form of 7 main tables, 101 country briefings and the interactive Databank, all available on OPHI’s website (www.ophi.org.uk).

Citation: Alkire, S. and Robles, G. (2015). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index – Winter 2015/16: Brief methodological note and results’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 36 (OPHI Briefing 36), Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

This paper is published also as OPHI Briefing 36.

MPI Methodological Note 42 (OPHI Briefing 42)

Multidimensional Poverty Index – Summer 2016: Brief Methodological Note and Results

The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2016 updates use the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. This brief methodological note presents the 2016 MPI updates, and releases the tables with the full results: national MPI, destitution and vulnerability results, rural, urban, subnational region, changes over time, and complete estimations, as well as complementary data, dimensional breakdowns, and confidence intervals. Destitution data are now available for 100 countries. It first explains the main updates in the 2016 MPI, following the guidelines for updates presented in the 2014 Methodological Note (Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). It uses the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in previous methodological notes (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011; Alkire, Conconi and Roche 2013; Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). Then it briefly describes the methodological assumptions considered for the estimation of each dataset. The results of these estimations are presented in the form of 7 main tables, 102 country briefings and the interactive databank, all available on OPHI’s website (www.ophi.org.uk).

Citation: Alkire, S., Jindra, C., Robles, G., and Vaz, A. (2016). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index – Summer 2016: Brief methodological note and results’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 42 (OPHI Briefing 42), Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

This paper is published also as OPHI Briefing 42.