Category Archives: Publications

MPI Methodological Note 05 (OPHI Briefing 05)

Multidimensional Poverty Index 2011: Brief Methodological Note

This note i) introduces the methodology used to construct the MPI 2011, ii) shares the main updates that have taken place since 2011, and iii) presents initial robustness results. The 2011 MPI uses the same dimensions, indicators, cutoffs, and weights in as in 2010, and the functional form has not changed. The construction of the MPI is explained in a non-technical fashion in Part 1 of this note. Part 2 outlines the updates to the MPI and the innovative analyses conducted this year. The updates are as follows: this year the MPI has been constructed for five additional countries. A new MPI has been released drawing on updated data for 20 countries. Innovative analyses include decomposition by sub-national region, time series comparisons, the calculation of standard errors, and the construction of MPI-related environmental indicators. The methodologies used to generate the tables on the MPI and the country briefs and maps on OPHI’s website, as well as the results published in the 2011 Human Development Report, are presented in this note. The tables are presented as appendices.

Citation: Alkire, S., Roche, J.M., Santos, M.E., Seth, S. (2011). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index 2011: Brief methodological note’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 05 (OPHI Briefing 05), Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

This paper is published also as OPHI Briefing 05.

MPI Methodological Note 12 (OPHI Briefing 12)

Multidimensional Poverty Index 2013: Brief Methodological Note and Results

The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2013 uses the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the same functional form as in previous years. The main innovation this year consists in updating the estimations for a series of countries and providing further possibilities for analysis over time. This brief methodological note outlines specific changes and clarifications concerning the MPI 2013 estimations, and presents the tables with the full results. It first explains the main updates in the MPI 2013 as well as the policies that will govern the MPI updates from 2013. It summarizes the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in other documents (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011). Then it explains the DHS nutritional subsamples and treatment for analysis over time. Finally, brief guidelines on how to undertake accurate analysis of changes over time are presented. The methodologies used to generate the tables on the MPI and the 104 country briefings and interactive maps available on OPHI’s website, as well as the results published in the 2013 Human Development Report, are presented in this note. The tables are presented as appendices and are available for download as Excel files.

Citation: Alkire, S., Conconi, A. and Roche, J.M. (2013). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index 2013: Brief Methodological Note and Results’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 12 (OPHI Briefing 12), Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

This paper is published also as OPHI Briefing 12.

MPI Methodological Note 19 (OPHI Briefing 19)

Multidimensional Poverty Index 2014: Brief Methodological Note and Results

The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2014 uses the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. The main innovations this year consist in: updating the estimations for a larger series of countries than any previous year, providing further analysis over time, as well as a new measure of destitution, and new measures of inequality among the poor and across subnational regions. This brief methodological note presents the MPI 2014 measures, and the tables with the full results. It first explains the main updates in the MPI 2014, following the guidelines for updates presented in the 2013 Methodological Note (Alkire, Conconi and Roche 2013). It summarizes the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in other documents (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011). Then it explains the new measure of destitution, which uses the same dimensions, indicators and weights, but more extreme deprivation cutoffs. Finally, a brief description of the index on inequality among the poor is presented. The methodologies used to generate the tables on the MPI and the 108 country briefings and interactive maps available on OPHI’s website, as well as the results to be published in the 2014 Human Development Report, are presented in this note. The tables are presented as appendices and are available for download as Excel files.

Citation: Alkire, S., Conconi, A. and Seth, S. (2014). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index 2014: Brief methodological note and results’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 19 (OPHI Briefing 19), Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

This paper is also published as OPHI Briefing 19.

MPI Methodological Note 31 (OPHI Briefing 31)

Multidimensional Poverty Index – 2015: Brief Methodological Note and Results

The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) (released June 2015, henceforth MPI 2015) uses the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. The main innovations in 2015 consisted in: updating the estimations for a larger series of countries than any previous year, providing further disaggregation of the estimations of MPI, destitution and inequality among the poor to regional level, providing the standard errors and confidence intervals of MPI and the headcount ratio (H), and providing a list of previous estimations. This brief methodological note presents the 2015 MPI updates, and the tables with the full results. It first explains the main updates in the 2015 MPI, following the guidelines for updates presented in the 2014 Methodological Note (Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). It summarizes the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in previous methodological notes (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011; Alkire, Conconi and Roche 2013; Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). Then it briefly describes the methodological assumptions considered for the estimation of each dataset. The results of such estimation are presented in the form of 6 main tables, 101 country briefings and the interactive Databank, all available on OPHI’s website.

Citation: Alkire, S. and Robles, G. (2015). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index – 2015: Brief methodological note and results’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 31 (OPHI Briefing 31), Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

This paper is also published as OPHI Briefing 31.

MPI Methodological Note 36 (OPHI Briefing 36)

Multidimensional Poverty Index – Winter 2015/16: Brief Methodological Note and Results

The Winter Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2015/16 updates (released December 2015, henceforth MPI 2015/16) use the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. The main MPI updates are released in summer; Winter MPI Updates provide the opportunity to share new estimations for any databases that have been processed. This brief methodological note presents the Winter 2015/16 MPI updates, and releases the tables with the full results: national MPI, destitution and vulnerability results, rural, urban, subnational region, changes over time, and complete estimations, as well as complementary data, dimensional breakdowns, and confidence intervals. Destitution data are now available for 100 countries. It first explains the main updates in the 2015/16 MPI, following the guidelines for updates presented in the 2014 Methodological Note (Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). It uses the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in previous methodological notes (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011; Alkire, Conconi and Roche 2013; Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). Then it briefly describes the methodological assumptions considered for the estimation of each dataset. The results of such estimations are presented in the form of 7 main tables, 101 country briefings and the interactive Databank, all available on OPHI’s website (www.ophi.org.uk).

Citation: Alkire, S. and Robles, G. (2015). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index – Winter 2015/16: Brief methodological note and results’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 36 (OPHI Briefing 36), Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

This paper is published also as OPHI Briefing 36.

MPI Methodological Note 42 (OPHI Briefing 42)

Multidimensional Poverty Index – Summer 2016: Brief Methodological Note and Results

The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2016 updates use the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. This brief methodological note presents the 2016 MPI updates, and releases the tables with the full results: national MPI, destitution and vulnerability results, rural, urban, subnational region, changes over time, and complete estimations, as well as complementary data, dimensional breakdowns, and confidence intervals. Destitution data are now available for 100 countries. It first explains the main updates in the 2016 MPI, following the guidelines for updates presented in the 2014 Methodological Note (Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). It uses the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in previous methodological notes (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011; Alkire, Conconi and Roche 2013; Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). Then it briefly describes the methodological assumptions considered for the estimation of each dataset. The results of these estimations are presented in the form of 7 main tables, 102 country briefings and the interactive databank, all available on OPHI’s website (www.ophi.org.uk).

Citation: Alkire, S., Jindra, C., Robles, G., and Vaz, A. (2016). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index – Summer 2016: Brief methodological note and results’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 42 (OPHI Briefing 42), Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

This paper is published also as OPHI Briefing 42.

MPI Methodological Note 43

Multidimensional Poverty Index – Winter 2016: Brief Methodological Note and Results

The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) Winter 2016 updates use the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. This brief methodological note presents the Winter 2016 MPI updates, and releases the tables with the full results: national MPI, destitution and vulnerability results, rural, urban, subnational region, changes over time, and complete estimations, as well as complementary data, dimensional breakdowns, and confidence intervals. Destitution data are now available for 102 countries. It first explains the main updates in the Winter 2016 MPI, following the guidelines for updates presented in the 2014 Methodological Note (Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). It uses the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in previous methodological notes (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011; Alkire, Conconi and Roche 2013; Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b; Alkire and Robles 2015; Alkire, Jindra, Robles and Vaz 2016). Then it briefly describes the methodological assumptions considered for the estimation of each dataset. The results of these estimations are presented in the form of 7 main tables, 103 country briefings and the interactive databank, all available on OPHI’s website (www.ophi.org.uk).

Citation: Alkire, S. and Robles, G. (2016). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index – Winter 2016: Brief methodological note and results’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 43, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI),  University of Oxford.

MPI Methodological Note 44

Multidimensional Poverty Index – Summer 2017: Brief Methodological Note and Results

The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2017 uses the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs, and weights) and the same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. This brief methodological note presents the 2017 MPI updates and releases tables with the full results in these categories: national MPI, destitution and vulnerability results, rural, urban, subnational regions, changes over time, and complete estimations, as well as complementary data, dimensional breakdowns, and confidence intervals. Destitution data are now available for all 103 countries. It first explains the main updates in the 2017 MPI, following the guidelines for updates presented in the 2014 Methodological Note (Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). It uses the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in previous methodological notes (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011; Alkire, Conconi and Roche 2013; Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b; Alkire and Robles 2015; Alkire, Jindra, Robles and Vaz 2016). Then it briefly describes the methodological assumptions for the estimation of each dataset. It adds a new section on disaggregation by children. The results of these estimations are presented in eight main tables (Table 8 focusing on age disaggregation), 103 country briefings and the interactive databank, all available on OPHI’s website (www.ophi.org.uk).

Citation for the Note: Alkire, S. and Robles, G. (2017). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index – Summer 2017: Brief methodological note and results’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 44, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.

Citation for Tables 1-7: Alkire, S. and Robles, G. (2017). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index – Summer 2017: Brief methodological note and results’. OPHI MPI Methodological Note 44, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.

Citation For Table 8: Alkire, S. Jindra, C. Robles, G. and Vaz, A. (2017). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index – Summer 2017: Brief methodological note and results’. OPHI MPI Methodological Note 44, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.

MPI Methodological Note 45

Multidimensional Poverty Index – Winter 2017-18: Brief Methodological Note and Results

The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2017-18 uses the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs, and weights) and the same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. This brief methodological note presents the 2017-18 MPI updates and releases tables with the full results in these categories: national MPI, destitution and vulnerability, disaggregation for rural, urban, subnational regions, and complete estimations, as well as complementary data, dimensional breakdowns, and confidence intervals. Destitution data are available for all 104 countries. This brief methodological note first explains the main updates in the 2017-18 MPI, following the guidelines for updates presented in the 2014 Methodological Note (Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). It then summarises the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in other documents (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011). This note then briefly describes the methodological assumptions for the estimation of each updated country dataset. The results of these estimations are presented in Tables 1-5 and 7, 104 country briefings and the interactive databank, all available on OPHI’s website (www.ophi.org.uk).

Citation: Alkire, S. and Kanagaratnam, U. (2018) ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index – Winter 2017-18: Brief methodological note and results’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 45,  Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford.

Citation for Tables 1-5 and 7: Alkire, S. and Kanagaratnam, U. (2018). ‘Multidimensional Poverty Index – Winter 2017-18: Brief methodological note and results’. OPHI MPI Methodological Note 45, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.

OPHI MPI Methodological Note 46

The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI): 2018 Revision

Drawing on the past methodological documents since 2010 for MPI-O and MPI-I, and on the global 2018 revision, this document provides a comprehensive guide to the methodology for estimating and reporting the global MPI in 2018. The methodology for the first global MPI by Alkire and Santos (2010) was documented in a working paper co-published by OPHI and HDRO. The underlying methodology, dimensions and number of indicators have remained unchanged since 2010. This document summarizes how the global MPI 2018 is computed.  However, before moving to the specifics, we provide a brief intuitive introduction to the MPI and its linked partial and sub-indices, and clarify how a global MPI differs from official national poverty statistics.

Citation: Alkire, S., Kanagaratnam, U. and Suppa, N. (2018). ‘The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI): 2018 revision’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 46, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.

Citation for Tables 1-5, and 7: Alkire, S., Kanagaratnam, U. and Suppa, N. (2018). ‘The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI): 2018 revision’, OPHI MPI Methodological Note 46, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.

Citation for Tables 5a and 6: Alkire, S., Oldiges, C. and Kanagaratnam, U. (2018). ‘Multidimensional poverty reduction in India 2005/6–2015/16: Still a long way to go but the poorest are catching up’, OPHI Research in Progress 54a, University of Oxford.