Category Archives: mppn

Iraqi Human Development Report presents multidimensional poverty index as tool for youth empowerment

Income, female education and job security have been identified as crucial to youth empowerment in Iraq in a new report by the Iraqi government and UNDP Iraq, which presents a national Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI).

Jointly with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Iraqi Prime Minister Dr. Haidar Al-Abadi and Minister of Planning Dr. Salman Al-Jumaily  launched the National Human Development Report  2014 under the theme ‘Iraqi Youth: Challenges and Opportunities’ in Baghdad in December 2014. The National Human Development Report focuses on opportunities and challenges related to youth development in line with the focus on youth empowerment set in the Iraqi government’s  National Development Plan 2013–2017.

The report presents an MPI for Iraq which is comprised of five dimensions in line with the priorities of the National Development Plan: education (4 indicators), basic services (4 indicators), nutrition and health (4 indicators), standard of living (3 indicators), and employment (6 indicators).  The dimensions were given equal weight and families were identified as multidimensionally poor if they were deprived in at least 33 percent of the indicators. The report estimates results based on the Iraq Knowledge Network Survey of 2011 and finds that 13.3 percent of Iraq’s population is multidimensionally poor.

Multidimensional poverty varies greatly from one Iraqi governorate to another. About 30 percent of the population in the governorates of Maysan and Wasit suffer from multidimensional poverty, compared to 4.3 percent in Baghdad and 1.4 percent in Sulaymaniya. The results also show the dimensions most responsible for multidimensional poverty. Income accounts for 17 percent of the total deprivation score, followed by female primary education at 9 percent and insecure employment. The report recommends that these results should be used to indicate priorities for social policies that will benefit the youth.

The report provides the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) to both the youth and the government of Iraq as a tool for the monitoring, observation, follow-up, and advocacy of policies centered on the youth.

Further information

Read the full report: ‘UNDP Iraq Human Development Report 2014: Iraqi Youth, Challenges and Opportunities.’

Read about Iraq’s work as part on multidimensional poverty as part of the international high-level Multidimensional Poverty Peer Network (MPPN).

Read about other national multidimensional poverty indices and the Alkire-Foster method on which these indices are based.


Chile to publish national Multidimensional Poverty Index

The Chilean government have announced that they plan to launch a national Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) in 2015.  Ahead of the launch, the country’s national press is leading a discussion of multidimensional poverty measurement, and interviews with both Sabina Alkire and James Foster have been published in major newspapers.

Interest was sparked through last week’s seminar organised by the Ministry for Social Development and the Centre for the Study of Conflict and Social Cohesion (COES), at which Sabina Alkire and James Foster spoke.  At the seminar the Chilean Under-Secretary for Social Development, Heidi Berner, announced that a Multidimensional Poverty Index will be released in addition to the 2013 National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) findings, which are also due to be published early next year.  The 2011 CASEN showed 14.4% of the population was income poor but included questions on education, health, housing and labour that have since been used to inform the MPI calculation.

The consultation process for the new Index was initiated during President Bachelet’s previous term in office.  The intervening administration established a presidential commission, before the new government’s work in finalising and publishing the Index – all an excellent indicator of the measure’s ability to survive political change.

Read interviews with Sabina Alkire and James Foster (in Spanish) published in Estrategia and El Mercurio.

Ho Chi Minh takes lead in piloting a new multidimensional poverty measure in Vietnam

In the lead up to launching a pilot city Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) , Ho Chi Minh City and the Vietnamese Government hosted OPHI co-founder John Hammock and OPHI researcher Mihika Chatterjee at a seminar on multidimensional poverty on 16 December.

The seminar on Multidimensional Poverty Measurement in Ho Chi Minh City was jointly hosted by the City’s Steering Committee for Poverty Reduction and Improved Household Livelihoods and the UN Development Programme (UNDP).

Discussions in the seminar focused on plans to implement multidimensional poverty measures in the City and useful lessons for the process of developing a national multidimensional measure. With the UN support, Vietnam is among the 32 countries in the world to pioneer the research and application of multidimensional poverty measures. The seminar  highlighted the value-added offered by multidimensional poverty methods to the governance and delivery of public services.

Hammock spoke on the application of multidimensional poverty measures by various members of the Multidimensional Poverty Peer Network (MPPN), of which Vietnam is a member. Chatterjee, who has been working with the Government and the UNDP over the last months on a measure for Ho Chi Minh City, presented preliminary results brought together in three published reports. The city government reiterated its strong intention of implementing a multidimensional poverty program in 2015 while representatives of the national government expressed their intention of adopting a multidimensional poverty measure in Vietnam’s next 5 year plan.

“Multidimensional poverty approaches have achieved global traction by providing a robust alternative to – and complement – income-based measures,” said UNDP Deputy Country Director Bakhodir Burkhanov at the seminar. “They are particularly applicable in Middle Income Countries like Vietnam and in such urban context as Ho Chi Minh City, where poverty is more complex and defined by a number of interlocking deprivations.”

Mr Burkhanov praised Ho Chi Minh City’s use of multi-dimensional poverty as  a pioneering effort. “There are enormous opportunities for the City’s work to further inform the national process, and to provide a template for replication elsewhere in Vietnam,” he said.

Further information

Download the joint press release from Ho Chi Minh City and the UNDP Vietnam issued at the event.

Find out more about Vietnam’s work as part of the Multidimensional Poverty Peer Network (MPPN).

Read the full speech made by UNDP Deputy Country Director Bakhodir Burkhanov on multidimensional poverty: Remarks by Bakhodir Burkhanov, UNDP Deputy Country Director at the seminar on multidimensional poverty measurement in Ho Chi Minh city

Find out more about the Global MPI 2014

Nigerian newspaper This Day Live publishes article on Global MPI 2014

The Nigerian newspaper This Day Live has published an article on the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2014. The Global MPI briefing for Nigeria was referenced by former minister of the National Planning Commission Dr. Shamsuddeen Usman, who delivered a keynote address in Abuja at the 25th anniversary lecture of the Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation. Usman noted that policymakers need to empathise and have a feel of what poverty really is in order to design effective alleviation programmes.

The Global MPI, calculated by OPHI in June 2014, revealed that 43.3 per cent of the Nigerian population are multidimensionally poor, including 25.3 per cent who live in severe poverty. A further 19.3 per cent of the population are vulnerable to poverty. The findings also showed that 57.5% of those living in rural areas are multidimensionally poor.

Nigeria is a member of the Multidimensional Poverty Peer Network (MPPN). Read more about Nigeria’s participation in the MPPN.

Further information

Read the full article published by This Day Live: ‘New Oxford Report Puts Nigeria’s Poverty rate at 43.3%’.

Find out more about the Global MPI 2014 and findings for Nigeria.


The Dominican Republic hosts discussion on Multidimensional Poverty

On 29 September, a group of ministers and key government leaders met to critically discuss and consider the benefits of a multidimensional poverty index in helping to form public policy and improve targeting of government resources. The discussion was hosted by the Vice President Dr Margarita Cedeño and accompanied by OPHI Director Sabina Alkire, who gave a distinguished lecture at the Presidential Palace on the same topic the same evening.  Both events are efforts by the government of the Dominican Republic to make known and spread support for a national Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI).

Picture courtesy

During the visit, Alkire also met with the technical team that is working to design the national MPI, delving into the key issue of the choice of dimensions and indicators of poverty. OPHI wil provide technical assistance to the government’s efforts both to improve their data collection through an improved questionnaire and to develop the national MPI. You can read further about the lecture on the Vice President’s official website (in the Spanish language) here.

You can see coverage of Alkire’s visit in the Spanish language in the following media: DiarioDigitalRD, DomincaDigital.Net and Listin Diario.

The Dominican Republic is a member of the Multidimensional Poverty Peer Network (MPPN) that has proposed a new data collection tool in the development of a post-2015 multidimensional poverty measure. You can read more about the Network here and read the questionnaire here.

Colombia hosts workshop on multidimensional poverty measurement for participants from Latin America

The Department for National Prosperity (DPS) of the Government of Colombia, the Inter-American Social Protection Network (IASPN), and OPHI co-organised a three-day workshop to explore Colombia’s experience with multidimensional poverty measurement and how it impacts social policy in the country.

OPHI Researcher Officers Gisela Robles Aguilar, Diego Zavaleta and Mauricio Apablaza participated in the workshop which was held in Bogota between September 17 – 19. It was attended by representatives of countries exploring national multidimensional poverty indices in the region, including Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Honduras, Ecuador, Paraguay and Uruguay.

The workshop included academic sessions on public policy applications of the index and statistical methods for calculating it, and a field visit to the town of Fusagasugá to visit families that have benefited from the ‘Red Unidos’ [United Network] social protection program. Beneficiaries of this program are identified and targeted through Colombia’s Multidimensional Poverty Index.

The objective of the workshop was for countries to share their experiences with other professional technicians and policy makers from Latin American countries regarding the construction of a multidimensional poverty index and the construction of a national application (based on the experience of Colombia).

You can see photographs taken during the event here , coverage on the Departamento para la Prosperidad Social (Department for Social Prosperity) website here and a short video clip here.

Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Uruguay and Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (OEA Organisation of the American States) are members of the Multidimensional Poverty Peer Network (MPPN). You can read more about the MPPN’s advocacy of a post-2015 multidimensional poverty measure at the 69th UN General Assembly session here. More information can be found (in Spanish) by clicking here and here.

Hon Dr. Kenny Anthony, Prime Minister of Saint Lucia to champion multidimensional poverty

At the annual meeting of the Multidimensional Poverty Peer Network (MPPN) held in Berlin this July, the Honourable Dr Kenny Anthony, Prime Minister of Saint Lucia pledged to be an international champion of multidimensional approaches to measuring and eradicating poverty. The Prime Minister gave a keynote address at the gathering of high-level representatives from over 20 governments around the world. In the address he noted the utility of multidimensional measures in capturing the complex reality poor people live in the Caribbean and the world over. In his speech, Dr Anthony also outlined plans, led by the Chief Statistician of Saint Lucia, to develop a Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for the Eastern Caribbean region.

For the full story please visit the MPPN website where you can read the transcript of the speech and watch the video of the keynote address.

Government officials to gather in Berlin for high-level MPPN meeting next week

Between 7-8 July 2014, senior representatives from nearly 30 governments and international institutions will gather in Berlin, Germany for a high-level meeting of the Multidimensional Poverty Peer Network, of which Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative is the Secretariat.

The event, the first high-level meeting of the Network since its launch at the University of Oxford in June 2013, will provide a forum for senior delegates to share conceptual, methodological and practical information on the implementation of multidimensional poverty measures in their respective countries.

Hosted by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the meeting brings together Vice Presidents, Ministers and Deputy Ministers from 25 governments, including Bhutan, Brazil, China, Chile, Colombia, Mexico Mozambique, Nigeria, Turkey, South Africa and Vietnam. Senior representatives from international institutions such as OECD, UNDP, Southern African Development Community (SADC), Organization of American States (OAS) and the Islamic Development Bank (IDB) will also be present. There will be over 20 presentations during the meeting, showcasing different experiences in addressing multidimensional poverty and/or designing national and subnational multidimensional measures.

You can follow different segments of the event live on Twitter through the hashtag #MPPN2014. Videos and powerpoint presentations from the meeting will also be available online after the event.

Highlights include
•    Presentations from over 18 governments on their steps toward developing multidimensional measures of poverty;
•    Keynote speeches from HE Dr Margarita Cedeño de Fernández, Vice-President of the Dominican Republic on the 7th of July; and Juan Manuel Valle Pereña, Executive Director of the Mexican Agency for International Development Cooperation, Government of Mexico, and HE Dr Kenny Anthony, Prime Minister of Saint Lucia on the 8th of July;
•    A roundtable discussions about multidimensional poverty in the post-2015 development agenda.

The high-level meeting furthers the network’s mission to provide international support to policymakers engaged in or exploring the construction of multidimensional poverty measures. It provides a forum for South-South exchanges on topics such as measurement design and the political processes and institutional arrangements that sustain new measures.

New report on baseline survey of Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index

The Women’s Empowerment Global Synthesis Report has been launched by the U.S. Government’s global hunger and food security initiative, Feed the Future. The report, co-authored by OPHI Director Sabina Alkire, provides a comprehensive analysis of the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) baseline survey results for thirteen countries.

The WEAI is the first-ever measure to directly capture women’s empowerment and inclusion levels in the agricultural sector. Developed by USAID, the International Food Policy Research Institute and OPHI, the index is an innovative tool that tracks women’s engagement in agriculture in five areas: production, resources, income, leadership and time use.

The new report summarizes both findings from the WEAI survey and the relationships between the WEAI and various outcomes of interest to the US Government’s Feed the Future initiative. These poverty, health, and nutrition outcomes include both factors that might affect empowerment and outcomes that might result from empowerment.

The analysis includes thirteen countries from five regions and compares their baseline survey scores. WEAI scores range from a high of 0.98 in Cambodia to a low of 0.66 in Bangladesh. Within Africa, West African countries have the lowest WEAI scores, followed by southern Africa with higher scores, and then East Africa, with the highest scores. These numbers provide an important measure of future progress, as baseline surveys for the remainder of Feed the Future countries are completed and additional rounds of data are collected during the midline and endline surveys.

You can download the new report here and you can find out more about the WEAI here.

South Africa launches South African Multidimensional Poverty Index (SAMPI)

Statistics South Africa has published a report launching the South African Multidimensional Poverty Index (SAMPI), which uses the Alkire Foster (AF) method developed at OPHI.

Statistics SA, the national statistical service of South Africa, used the method in order to ‘improve poverty measurement for the country and to align ourselves with the growing international trend towards measuring poverty beyond the traditional money-metric method’, it states in the report. The new measure is intended to complement the money-metric measures already used in the country, including the food poverty line, the lower-bound poverty line and the upper-bound poverty line.

The SAMPI takes advantage of the flexibility of the AF method, which enables measures to be built which are sensitive to a specific country context. For example, alongside the three dimensions used in the Global MPI – heath, education and living standards – the SAMPI includes a fourth dimension on economic activity, using unemployment as the indicator.

Census data collected in 2001 and 2011 were used to compute an index for each year, allowing analysis of changes of multidimensional poverty levels during this time period. The report finds that there has been a significant improvment in multidimensional poverty levels in South Africa over the decade analysed, with a decrease from 17.9% in 2001 to 8% in 2011.

Nationally, the contribution of living standards and eduction to the SAMPI fell by 3.3% and 3.9% respectively over the time period, which the report attributes to improvements in the government’s delivery of basic services in these areas. However, the contribution of economic activity increased from 32.9% to 39.8%, suggesting that unemployment levels are a serious contributing factor to household poverty in 2011.

You can download the full report here.